The perception of organizations as political entities is based on the idea that corporations are not rational actors, but instead collections of disparate individuals with conflicting interests.
This concept reflects the political frame for viewing the world developed by Bolman and Deal (National Defense University). Many organizations will be impacted by the political movements in their midst that will seriously affect organizational decision-making.
Politics in organizations can be understood in the Aristotelian sense, in which “politics stems from a diversity of interests” (Ratzburg, 2000). Within organizations, this means that people are not tabula rasa when they come to the organization; instead, they bring their interests, desires, and needs that can conflict with each other and with the overall goal of the organization. Continue reading
For me, philosophy is not only a science but also the opportunity to find the answers to some fundamental questions of life. I think that it can give solutions for those who seek for them. At the same time, it can mix up thoughts for those who don’t have an opinion of their own and count only on other views.
People wanted to get the answer to eternal questions since the humankind appeared. People need explanations for the reason of their living, understand the sense of their existence and the higher forces, which influence their lives. People turned to myth in the beginning. Religion derives from legend, and it is a more complicated form of methodology. Religion is based on faith but human mind developed and needed more and more rational explanations, and thus philosophy appeared. Its main aim was to give reasonable answers to the central questions of existence. Continue reading
Bradley is almost three. Just a typical kid with golden hair and big grey eyes. He likes sweets and baseball. People who see Bradley walking with his parents on the street turn their heads and sign enviously. “Little angel” – they say. He makes laugh all the people around him when he copies Michael Jackson’s moonwalk or calls himself a Spiderman and promises to save the world. But tears appear on the eyes of his mother Catherine when she watches her carelessly playing the child, and even Martin, Bradley’s father would quickly leave the room for his wife not to notice the tears which appear in his eyes. There is a part that stranger people and neighbors in the street don’t know.
Bradley is dying. He has an incurable liver disease. The respirator could have replaced Bradley’s lungs, and the dialysis machine could have replaced his kidneys, but no machine would replace the liver. His only hope is a transplant. The family has signed up an organ donation program of course but the line is so long, and disease is so serious that the hope fades away with every day. Catherine and Martin can buy Bradley plenty of toys and sweets, but they can not buy the only thing he needs badly – health. They are wonderful parents and would gladly give the life for their kid, but there is a thing they can not help. It’s a year already during which this young couple meets every moment with hope mixed with despair. They are afraid of every cough of Bradley as it could be a symptom of the complication of his disease and they also try not to keep the phone busy for a long time as they are expecting for the call from the Oran Donation service every minute. This story has no ending yet, and we will hope it will be good. Continue reading
The problem of wrongful conviction is not new in judicial practice. It’s a well-known fact that the human factor in legal practice contributes most to the unlawful court decision and opinions, as sometimes it’s impossible to determine truth, especially in the cases with lack of evidence. Until recent times when there existed no technical and scientific methods, and merely the judicial procedures in courts and level of expertise were of a low quality the number of wrongfully convicted was great. Today when some expertise methods are available to criminologists the probability of wrongful conviction is reduced but such cases happen shocking public opinion about justice standards in the country.
Today it became possible to revise cases insisting on additional expertise as new scientific methods such as DNA analysis became available for criminologists and conclusions with the help of this technique draw a clear and distinct picture about the relationship of a particular individual to a specific case. Continue reading
We often do, to be sure, excuse
people for what they have done
when they tell us (and we believe them)
that they could not have done otherwise
(Harry Frankfurt “Alternate Possibilities & Moral Responsibility”)
Harry Frankfurt’s work “Alternate Possibilities & Moral Responsibility, ” is a philosophical paper on determinism and moral responsibility and their compatibility with the “principle of alternate possibilities” and freedom of choice.
The paper is only one example of the great amount of “freedom and determinism” debate papers.
The free-will problem, as the author calls it, is, in his opinion, closely related to the principle of alternate possibilities, which states that a person is morally responsible for what he has done only if he could have done otherwise.
Mr. Frankfurt in his work completely disagrees with such a wording of the principle and offers his own, more relevant one: a person is not morally responsible for what he has done if he did it only because he could not have done otherwise.
The author is particularly disturbed with the correlation of this formulation with the idea of the compatibility of moral responsibility and determinism. According to Frankfurt, anyone who accepts it is thereby committed to believing that these principles are incompatible. He, on the other hand, is an advocate of the Compatibilist ideas that state the opposite. Frankfurt and other followers of the Compatibility concept believe that there is a correlation between the determinism and the moral responsibility, depending on the circumstances which advocate for the individual’s actions. Continue reading
They made love,
they made money, and they made a little history.
– E. Tiber
It’s hard to find a person who wouldn’t know the name, Woodstock. It may mean different things to different people, but everybody knows about it. For the participants and those who wanted to get there, Woodstock became the holiday of freedom and love. For opponents of the hippie movement, it was a noise meeting of drunk and drug addict youth. Some people regard it as a culmination of the “hippie era” and the celebration of the counterculture. Arnold Skolnick, an artist who designed the symbol of Woodstock, described this event as “something was tapped, a nerve, in this country. And everybody just came.”(Tiber, http://www.woodstock69.com/wsrprnt2.htm).
Officially Woodstock is remembered as the most prominent rock-festival, which place in August 1969. Continue reading
Booker Taliaferro Washington was a remarkable figure in American history. Usually, this phrase states that he was an icon of the history of Blacks in American, but I firmly deem that we shouldn’t underestimate his role in the national history of the United States.
Booker T. Washington began his life as a slave in slavery, in Virginia, on April 5, 1856. After the abolition of slavery, he had to work in salt and coal mines since early teens to earn his living and support his family. He was a promising child of outstanding intellectual abilities.
Unfortunately, he encountered many problems while trying to receive school education. It was only when he turned sixteen that he was allowed to leave work to go to school. Booker’s parents could afford education for his son, but the boy became independent and self-sufficient very early. His lust for knowledge was so intense that he walked 200 miles on foot to take classes at the Hampton Institute in Virginia. He had to work as a janitor to pay for his studies and board. Continue reading
Anybody leaving on a dangerous assignment to a foreign land needs to realize that there are two possible routes to take in foreign policy. Teddy Roosevelt insisted that one should carry a big stick to intimidate one’s adversaries. Mahatma Gandhi, in contrast, advised a more peaceful policy that will carry no stick.
Today’s reality convincingly proves that the time when sticks were taken out and brandished for every conceivable purpose is gone. Today, a politician has to act wisely, speak softly, and use negotiations wherever possible to prevent the use of force.
Negotiations often seem a pure waste of time to someone with a military background. It can be a waste indeed when people do not know how to do it properly. Trying to resolve the conflict peacefully is a challenge to one’s abilities, brains, and experience. To meet this challenge head-on, it is helpful to adopt a few necessary tactics.
First of all, an excellent point to start is to find out what the other party wants. These wishes should not be taken for granted from their demands, since speeches may be masking something else. Quite a lot of people believe today, for instance, that North Korea is merely manipulating the West to extort financial assistance for the abandonment of nuclear weapons and may not, in fact, have any to dismantle. Looking carefully into the situation of the opponent and trying to understand the inner drives enables one to use the power of persuasion more effectively. Continue reading
Only the educated are free, – goes a famous quote of Epictetus, an ancient Roman philosopher. I totally agree with this expression. I would only add that to be free the one needs to be healthy as well. I think anybody will share my opinion. Indeed, ill or poorly educated people will hardly feel themselves free and happy. Therefore, as a result many educated and healthy people can make strong, happy, and free nation. A large number of developed countries have already realized and embodied this thesis. However, in most of developing countries the situation is drastically different.
The distinctions between developed countries and the ones that are still developing are often very significant. The causes of such differences include diverse factors, such as historical, economical, political, social, and many more. Continue reading
The issue of home cooking and fast food is considered to be controversial, and many-sided one. It can not be called a problem, but there are a lot of opinions and statements, and there are a lot of false ones as well.
For example, people are used to believing the fast food restaurants are the signs of the modern world, but in reality, some of them are not much younger than the cities themselves. Here Ancient Roman towns with their bread-and-olive stands or about East Asian noodle shops should be mentioned. Later on appeared the famous hamburgers as the earliest fast food products in America.
Nowadays the term fast food is usually associated with the chain McDonalds.
One could often hear about the fast food damaging health of people; there is an opinion that the fast food manufacturers should warn their consumers that their food could make them fat. The fact is even if it is done, there is little guarantee that all people will follow this piece of advice. Continue reading