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# Wastewater Treatment Term Paper

Wastewater management targets removal several wastes including alkalinity, chloride, suspended solids, BODs, settleable solids, organic carbon, phosphorous among others. The management process focuses on the reduction of the quantity of these materials to acceptable limits to prevent poisoning of the water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and rivers that the harbor aquatic life. Most of these waste materials in the domestic and industrial wastewater would kill majority of the aquatic life calling for processing. The wastewater treatment involves several processes including the removal of the large materials that may lead to operational problems in the preliminary stage. The removal of biochemical oxygen demands would then follow in the subsequent process before the sludge management that involves the processing of solids (Jimenez et al. 472).

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Size of Land Required for Reclamation
The population produces about 10 million gallons per day (MGD) of waste water. Given that the are about 264.17 fluid gallons in a cubic meter, the study calculated the size of land needed for wastewater management as follows.
264.17 gallons = 1 m3
10,000,000 gallons = 1* 10,000,000/264.17 = 37,854.12 m3 per day
The Flyer island therefore produced about 37,854.12 m3 per day of wastewater.

According to the standards, a hector (ha) of land reclamation is necessary of 112 tons of wastewater.
However, it is necessary to calculate the tons of wastewater produced by the population per day.

Assuming that 1 liter of wastewater is equivalent to 1 kilogram, the following is the number of tons of waste water produced per day.

1 liter = 1 kg
1 m3 = 1000 liters = 1000 kg
37,854.12 m3 = 37,854, 120 kilograms
Given also that 1 tone = 1000 kg
The tons of waste produced by the population per day = 37,854,120/1000 = 37,854.12 t/day.
Hence the tons produced per year = 37,854.12*365
Since 1 hector can sustain 112 tons of wastewater, the determination of the hectors required for wastewater is estimated as follows.
(37,854.12*565)/112 = 123,363.87 ha.
Therefore, the total hectors of land required for reclamation is 123,363.87.

Wastewater Treatment Processes
The wastewater treatment process therefore occurs as follows.
Preliminary treatment primary treatment secondary treatment final treatment

Preliminary Treatment
The treatment process involves sending of the wastewater through a bar screen to remove the large objects from the stick. The preliminary treatment occurs immediately after the wastewater has arrived to at the pool through the sewer system. Some of the solids removed at this stage include sticks and rags as they can damage the wastewater treatment plant and it is necessary to remove them to ensure that the process continues smoothly. The preliminary treatment system then involves slowdown of the flow of the wastewater as it enters the grit tank. The slow movement of the wastewater enables gravel, sand and other heavy material to settle down at the bottom for their removal. The disposal of all these debris collected at both the grit tank and the bar screen occurs at the sanitary landfill.

The preliminary effluent = 10 MGD
264.17 gallons = 1 m3
10,000,000 gallons = 1* 10,000,000/264.17 = 37,854.12 m3 per day
The Flyer island therefore produced about 37,854.12 m3 per day of wastewater

Primary Treatment
After the preliminary wastewater treatment process, it goes to the primary treatment stage. At this step, there is physical separation of the greases and solids from the wastewater to allow for treatment of the liquid wastes. The wastewater flows into the primary settling tank after undergoing screening in the preliminary step. Further, the process involves holding of the wastewater at the primary settling tank for several hours. Holding of the wastewater is necessary for the solid particles to settle at the bottom of the tank while the greases and oils float on top of the wastewater (Feng et al 242).

Primary effluent BOD concentration, S0 = 150 mg/L or 150 g/m3
Primary suspended solids concentration, X = 2000 g/m3
Aeration tank volume V = (8.34*S0*Q0)/VL = (150 *8.34*10)/7.5= 417,000 ft2

Secondary Treatment
Secondary treatment is the most crucial step in wastewater treatment as it involves the removal of dissolved organic materials from the wastewater (Jimenez et al. 472). After the primary treatment, the wastewater flows into the aeration tank through the gravitational force. It involves the addition of oxygen when mixing water to solids to help in the biological treatment of the wastewater. There are microbials in the wastewater that will function in the presence of oxygen to breakdown the biological wastes into particles that are less harmful to the environment. The final clarifier would then receive the mixture of liquid and the solids that contain microorganisms. The solids wastes would then settle at the bottom of the tank where the system directs some of them to the solids handling process for recycling. The tank would retain some of the solid waste to supply the microorganisms necessary for breaking down the wastewater.

Aeration tank volume, VMG = V*7.48/1000000 = 3.12 million gallons
Aeration tank, HRT = 24*VMG/Q0 = 24*3.12/10 = 7.5 Hours

Works Cited
Feng, Yinghong, et al. “Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion Of Waste Activated Sludge Digestion By The Addition Of Zero Valent Iron.” Water Research, vol. 52, 2014, pp. 242-250.
Jimenez, Jose, et al. “High-Rate Activated Sludge System For Carbon Management–Evaluation Of Crucial Process Mechanisms And Design Parameters.” Water Research, vol. 87, 2015, pp. 476-482.

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