What does a 13-year-old girl; a musician, an online banker and an intergovernmental organization have in common? The answer is they are all potential victims for criminal computer activity (Goucher, 2010). With the fast-growth of the use of the Internet and the World Wide Web, the world has been experiencing a rapid rise in the rate of computer-related crime. This rise has created controversy and commotion in regarding the courts’ involvement of cyberspace. Some even say that law enforcement is creating an overregulated cyberspace environment, an opinion contrary to that of the past. This paper examines the broad nature of the phenomena of computer crime and the actors behind it. Along with a description of different types of computer crime, this paper provides an introduction to the psychology of computer criminals and computer crime prevention techniques. This paper also provides statistical data on the most common types of computer crime experienced and the greatest concerns for future attacks by past and potential victims.
Definition and Classification of Computer Crime
One definition of computer crime, also known as cybercrime, divides crimes into three categories: where the computer is the target, where the computer is a tool used to execute the crime, and crimes where the computer is incidental to other crimes (Goodman, 1997). Carter (1995) gives a similar definition, but here he expands computer crime into a fourth category: crimes associated with the prevalence of computers. The following four categories of computer crime do not necessarily indicate that one crime must only fit in one category. Classifications may overlap as a criminal transaction takes place. Continue reading
According to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV), schizophrenia stands for a persistent, often chronic and usually serious mental disorder influencing various behavioral, thinking, and emotional aspects of an individual. The symptoms for this disorder vary a lot, and may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior etc (APA, 2000).
Although these and other symptoms of schizophrenia have been described long ago, the term and the precise concept of the disorder have not been defined in the literature until the end of the 19th century. Schizophrenia’s first name, created around the last decade of the 19th century by Emil Kraepelin, a German psychiatrist, was “Dementia Praecox”. Later, Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist, called it “the splitted mind” in Greek, therefore inventing the generally accepted term for the disorder. Schizophrenia is a comparatively unexplored mental disorder even in the 21st century: the scholars still argue on the possible causes and treatments for it, and continue their studies in different spheres of scientific research to determine and prove them. Continue reading
Apart from legal or religious definitions, marriage can be described as an extended relationship between two (or, in case of polygamy, among more then two) individuals and usually has the following features:
- a sexual relationship;
- an expected procreation;
- an existence of expectations or agreements to provide support for one another; and
- a ceremonial event formalizing the fact of marriage (Palmer, 1998, p.119).
At the same time Palmer points out that „none of these is a necessary condition, and if they are logically sufficient conditions when taken jointly, it is probably because of the inclusion of feature number four” (Palmer, 1998, p.119). The same-sex partnerships are compatible with all three major features of traditional marriage, being sex, procreation and support, which makes the forth feature, ceremony, merely a formality.
A compliance of the same-sex partnership with the first feature of marriage, a sexual relationship between spouses, is self-evident. While opponents of the same-sex marriages may claim that the same-sex intimacy is „unnatural”, technically, the condition of a sexual relationship within the same-sex partnerships is met, though certain controversy regarding procreation aspect of such sex may exist. Continue reading
The term “democracy” is not new to the modern world. We know that the first democracy was established in Greece about five hundred years Before the Common Era. Democracy has gone a long way of development to find its modern form and to introduce its principles into the modern society. According to Beetham (2006), “As an ideal, it expresses two very simple principles: first is that the members of any group or association should have the determining influence and control over its rules and policies, through their participation in deliberations about the common interest; second, that in doing so they should treat each other, and be treated, as equals. These principles are applicable from the smallest group up to the largest state; how effectively they realized in practice is the touchstone of how democratic any association can claim to be.”
Today in most countries of the world the democratic model of governance is the well-established and efficient form of government. Nowadays the parliaments, as the central institution of democracy, are the main tool of ruling the state. “They embody the will of the people in government, and carry all their expectations that democracy will be truly responsive to their needs and help solve the most pressing problems that confront them in their daily lives.” (Beetham, 2006). But what makes the parliament or legislature itself democratic? What is the parliamentary contribution to modern democracy and how does it work in practice? Continue reading
Learning is a very important aspect of our lives. We all start learning from the moment we are born, and the environment we are placed in affect how and what we learn as individuals.
A famous novelist and essayist, C. S. Lewis, once brought the learning issues during the war in his well-known letter “Learning in war time”. He claims that the society is under the constant pressure and that it is impossible for people to concentrate on anything else when their close people are at risk of dying or being hurt. C. S. Lewis (1939) asked, “What is the use of beginning a task which we have so little chance of finishing?” (p. 1). Young people, who are starting a university or any other learning institution before the war, find themselves unable to continue and finish their studies. Young boys are taken to the army with no guarantee of coming back. In addition to this, there are almost no resources available for learning institutions to provide their students with all the necessary equipment. Apart from the physical obstacles, there is also a psychological impact on student’s motivation to continue acquiring any kind of knowledge. Continue reading
Within the scope of this research, we will compare Buddhism and Catholicism in terms of the respective beliefs of those religions. Jesus was called savior, or Christ, by his followers because he was believed to be son of God who would save them. These differences in upbringing and different settings, including time and place, for the religions may affect the way these religions view god. Catholicism refers to God as being a trinity, father, son, and holy spirit. Buddhism on the other hand, views God in only one way, as an impersonal god. References to him are not as commonly made.
In prayer, Catholics pray directly to God calling him father or something of that sort, whereas Buddhists meditate without spoken words. (3) They believe in a personal relationship with God as though he is a family member. They believe that throughout history God has stepped in, or intervened at various times. The scripture, or the bible, is said to be the word of God, influenced by him in its writing.
People in Catholicism need to read the voice of God to get a better idea that he is close. Buddhists believe God to be impersonal and away from the people. He created all and now lets it live on its own. They hardly refer to God at all. They mostly follow the teachings of Buddha, who they believe to be enlightened by him. Once God is referred to in a name, he no longer is impersonal and is more earthly.
He is suppose to be beyond anything people can truly understand here on earth. That is why Buddhism has no written word of God, as the Catholics do. Catholics believe these images and names allow him to be made personal. People can not have a true loving relationship with an ultimate that is too far beyond that it is out of their understanding. It must be related to things they truly love on earth, such as family members. Continue reading
“Massacre, Genocide, Holocaust – these are words that we hope never to mention”.
Genocide – this word went down to the history of the world as a horrible reminder of the world’s ongoing mass killings and crimes against humanity. All around the world, different people experience hardships, their human rights are neglected and they are treated like slaves. Armies kill innocent civilians without any reason, committing awful crimes. And this is only the top of the iceberg called – Genocide or the Holocaust The history already had bright examples of this tragedy. The greatest Holocaust against Jews in Poland, France and Germany and implementation of the concentration camps’ programs of Nazi Germany shook the world and touched the hearts of thousands of people. The mass murder of Indians in the history of the United States of America and many other facts will never leave us indifferent to this acute global problem.
The Middle East today is not an impeccable part of the world. It’s a part that virtually bleeds hoping for the long awaiting peace to be established. Every Day innocent people lose their lives, regardless of the fact that policymakers and officials try to find compromise in order to come to a peace deal.
The conflict between the Israelis and Palestinians, based on the disputes over “promised land” has an immense impact on the stability of the whole Middle East region. The world became aware of the seriousness of this conflict and the world’s leading countries try to initiate the peace talks and provide solutions on how to move the peace process ahead. I guess it’s important to underline that Palestinians experience serious violations of their human rights, endless tortures in Israeli prisons and thus we can assume that the Hidden Genocide against Palestinian nation is actually happening these days. Continue reading
In the following term paper we are going to develop a Marketing Plan that will create business opportunity for Eden Creations.
Product: wedding and casual jewelry.
Suggested market: Canada, the USA with prospects of serving global clients in an online mode.
Target market: Young brides and young females for wedding and casual wear jewelry.
Reason for picking this market:
Canada and the USA are the world’s largest markets which provide the greatest opportunity for any product or service. These are the countries with richest people in the world who spend huge sums on weddings let alone casual jewelry.
Relying solely on the wedding collection would be ok, yet certainly would keep Eden Creations dependent on seasonal demand and trends for the wedding accessories. Producing casual wear jewelry would allow Eden Creations to serve several markets and enjoy diversification. Continue reading
Thomas Hobbes is a great English philosopher who is best known for his political researches and investigations. He integrated political thought and philosophy and proposed his own model of the state structure providing it with philosophical explanations. Hobbes is famous for his materialistic point of view. His most famous work that is even nowadays the subject of much controversy is Leviathan. The book was written in 1651 during the period of English Civil war.
Hobbs got a proper education at Oxford and then was the tutor for the son of William Cavendish and the Earl of Devonshire. He was engaged in the English Civil War and in 1640 he was made to leave England for France. Nevertheless, in France he continued his scientific and public work and maintained close contact with European scientists, especially with René Descartes and Galileo.
Hobbes’s philosophical treasure is great. According to Hobbes the main subject of philosophy could be only motion and matter. Leviathan is dedicated to the description of solitary, brutish and short life. Hobbes proclaims that the main aim moral rules had being designed for was to avoid chaos. And though in his previous works he disputed the social authority of a monarch and claimed that social authority can come from people only he turned to different point of view in his Leviathan. Not before the Leviathan was published Hobbes received sanction to come back to England. Hobbes was favored by King Charles II after his Restoration in 1660. Continue reading
One should start by saying that Internet censorship is a legally similar to any other censorship of offline material (books, audio, video and other material). The major difference between internet and offline censorships is that national borders are more permeable through the internet as well as entry barriers for internet use are lowered. The majority of information that is banned in a certain country can be easily found online through websites hosted outside that country. Therefore, the attempts of a government in one country to prevent its citizens from having access to some information also will place some restrictions on foreigners since the government typically would take some action against existing internet sites anywhere in the world that have material the government strives to object. In the following essay I will speak about the internet censorship, point out some of the recent censorship instances, comment on the ways how the governments can limit the internet access and how that government control can be overcome as well as what one needs to do to assure that his/her information can be still available on the internet even if she/he lives in the country that imposes limits on the use of internet and information sharing. Continue reading