We are all descended either from immigrants to America or from Native Americans. The sources of immigration were and still are so diverse that every person living in America has to a greater or smaller degree a cultural background that is different from the mainstream American culture. This statement might seem to be conflicting, but it is not. I would define mainstream or popular culture as the product of growth and interaction of mass media industries.
My Cultural Background
I personally come from a Russian background. My great-grandparents were born in Pinsk, Byelorussia and immigrated to Texas in the United States in 1916 just before the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. They have assimilated well in their new fatherland and they didn’t even bother to teach Russian to my grandmother and their other children. Although I have Byelorussian origin, I still consider my cultural background to be Russian, and it is. My grandparents converted to Catholicism, but they still observe some of the Russian traditions, especially national cuisine. Continue reading
The contemporary society seems to be totally different from the societies of the past. This may be observed in different rites which used to be traditional even for the most advanced societies, including European and American. In this respect rites of passage seem to be particularly noteworthy, especially in relation to girls which were treated in a different way in the past than they are now.
The readings and lecture for this week reveal numerous facts that indicate at the rites of passage for both girls and boys and it is noteworthy that for the latter these rites were basically closely related to the body changes. To put it more precisely, the maturing of girls was associated with the start of menstruation. In fact the first menstruation symbolized a dramatic change in girls’ social position and attitudes of the surrounding people in relation to them. At the same time, nowadays it is hardly possible to imagine what those poor girls in the past had to come through in such an important period of their life. Continue reading
Entertainment has played important role in human life since ancient times. Numerous forms of entertainment appeared every century, and its amount is nowadays enormous. All entertainment forms worth interest, however circus seems most attractive to me. In the current paper I will research the history of circus, the reason of its popularity, and conditions of its development.
Circus as a form of entertainment has very long and vivid history. Circus played significant role in leisure experience of ancient ages, hence to my mind this form of entertainment should be carefully researched by theatre historians of our time. Originally circus was born in Ancient Rome (8th century BC – 4th century) as a public exhibition where chariot races, acrobat shows, battles, and other amusements were exhibited. It represented an open stadium with round arena, with rows of seats around it. Among performers who were involved in circus shows were exotic animals’ trainers, horse riders, acrobats, athletes, magicians, and many more participants. Continue reading
The are some basic concepts that people use on a regular basis, and which to a large degree make our interaction with the world and with others meaningful. The notion of truthfulness definitely belongs to the list of such important conceptions, and can even be considered superior to many other ones as without our assurance that our beliefs are truthful we can hardly claim that we have knowledge of something, which in its turn would clearly render us quite helpless in our everyday life. Considering the significance that truth as such has in our life, let us take a look at one instance when there seems to be a conflict over what is truthful. This instance is represented by the ubiquitous attempts to interpret and reconcile literal truth, which constitutes the methodological basis of the modern science, and spiritual truth, which underlies religious and emotional experiences of people. Continue reading
Reading is very important in the process of learning. Moreover, it may influence a personality, traits of character and the development of an individual. It is particularly important to teach children to learn, to be active readers so that they could have larger prospects of personal development.
In order to better understand the necessity and the importance of reading, it is necessary to briefly define what active readers are and discuss their particular features and the prospects they have in the future as a part of the society. First of all, it should be said that active readers are extremely involved in reading and are very attentive to this process. As a rule they are “engaged in the text, they become intrigued by it, and work to discover its secret” (Crowder 1992:256). Continue reading
Morality along with moral values and ethics are one of the central concepts in the life of every person, family, nationality and world as a whole. It took thousands of years for people to develop certain patterns of behavior following principles of ethics. Being one of the main branches of philosophy, ethics is concerned with studying human beings, their behavior and thoughts, teaching people how to take the right action, how to treat each other, explaining such concepts as love and respect, friendship, family and others. Indeed, ethics is one of the fundamental sciences, which played a great role in the moral development of the humanity. Establishing certain norms, or rules of behavior, ethics predetermined the patterns of behavior for people living in different countries during different historical periods. Of course, every generation has its own moral and ethical values which are more preferred than others; however, there is a certain standard in ethical science which is used in every country, culture or religion worldwide. Ethics acknowledges that all people are different and that all of us face certain difficulties at some points of our lives, however, it emphasizes the importance of usage of moral principles and values when dealing with any kind of problems. As a science, ethics adopted various theories, and every one of them has its followers and opponents. Two ethical theories will be discussed in the current paper. They are Mill’s Utilitarian Theory and Kant’s Deontological Theory. Continue reading
Freedom is the right to live as we wish.
Every living man has his own way of thinking, certain rules of conduct and mentality. We all have a different frame of reference and that is basically why our understanding of some abstract idea differs greatly from that of our neighbor’s.
The story of Diogenes and Alexander the Great is a wonderful illustration to my previous statement. In the story, two notions of life, happiness and freedom are depicted. One is that of Diogene, the famous wise man of Ancient Greece, to whom “men came from all parts of the land to see and talk”. The other is of Alexander the Great, king of Macedon, the outstanding ruler and one of, if not the most successful military commanders in world’s history.
The story says “Diogenes was a strange man”. His sayings that “no man needed much” sounded odd in the ever-material world and also his life conduct of sleeping in a barrel, which he rolled about from place to place were unacceptable to the citizens of ancient Greece. Diogenes’ understanding of freedom and happiness laid in his days spent sitting in the sun, surrounded by people and saying wise things to them. Diogenes was enjoying his life very much, because it was his freedom – the right to win as one wants. Continue reading
So as to prevent the spread of nuclear technology world community established the non-proliferation treaty and North Korea signed this treaty under the pressure of international authorities in 1985 also. Several years after South Korea continued its nuclear program towards the development of nuclear bomb in spite of indignation, multiple warnings and sanctions from the members of the United Nations. Active summit talks convinced official Pyongyang to become a party of the Agreed Framework in exchange for the indulgence of economic sanctions from US. Major arrangements of the Agreed Framework implied freezing of Pyongyang’s nuclear program and monitoring of Korean nuclear objects by International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors, joining the efforts in the denuclearization of Korean Peninsula and normalization of international relations. The exacerbation in Korean region decreased there was a time period of effective cooperation. But new millennium brought new problems: in 2002 USA manifested a reasonable apprehension that Pyongyang endeavors to enrich uranium. The existence of such program in itself neglects all the before entered engagements and endangers the world community. The same year North Korea confirmed the existence of uranium enrichment program and this issue compelled the attention of many countries including US, Russia, Great Britain, China, Japan and South Korea. UNO officials initiated many talks (including three- and six-party talks) which gave no significant positive shifts in North Korean nuclear standoff. Later Pyongyang refused from new and broken off all current negotiations. Continue reading
The profession of Registered nurse plays a significant role in the entire national healthcare system. On my opinion Registered nursing requires a certain personal philosophy from people who plan to master this trade. I hope my own vision of this profession corresponds with its philosophy and ethics.
As in any other profession, in nursing there exist ethical values that are basic for it. In my opinion the major values and features here are humanity, responsibility, compassion, gravity, patience, and reliability. Registered nurse must always know that his/her role in health and life of patients may appear determining, hence requires sound responsibility.
I hope that my personal attitudes toward health, life and death agree with nursing philosophy. I know that life is the greatest value human possesses, therefore preserving and keeping human life is a serious duty. Health is one of the necessary conditions of life, thus health should be taken with the same importance. Death, however, is a natural phenomenon of life completion. Hence death is something we struggle with nevertheless something we have to admit when it comes. Continue reading
Health insurance and safety issues refer in general to questions related to risk assessment and risk assumption such as who will bear the risks and the acceptable degree of risk. Answers to these questions have a direct bearing on the situation with employee rights, especially when it comes to the healthy and risk-free workplace. Therefore, employers should take active action to evaluate these risks correctly and address them.
Health risk assessment has become an essential feature of modern organizations that help them avert the danger of future lawsuits. With this purpose in mind, most companies perform a detailed analysis of environments in which their employees are working, trying to identify harmful influences on their health. One popular issue, for instance, relevant to manufacturing is one of exposure to toxic and radioactive materials. Continue reading