In his book “Charisma and Leadership in Organizations” Alan Bryman, a reader in social research in the Department of Social Sciences at Loughborough University, United Kingdom, presents an investigation of modern leadership research. He traces the development of different leadership theories starting from the emergence of leadership theory up to present moment. Seven chapters of the book present a fundamental research on the leadership and charisma and their function in modern organizations.
Deep investigation of relationships between the leadership and charisma is presented in several stages starting from the emergence of early leadership theories and finishing with the meaning of these notions at present moment. Bryman puts these two notions in business context and explores the meaning of the new leadership and charisma for contemporary business structures and organizations. This book is a deep and fundamental research on the theme of leadership, which does not only give a description of different leadership theories, but also links them to present moment and puts then in business context. Critical evaluation of different leadership and charisma theories present the author’s position concerning this subject. Describing leadership theories and giving different definitions Bryman presents his vision of their appliance in modern context. Descriptions of different leadership theories in the first chapters serve as a foundation for further research of modern theories used in present time.
“Life and Death in Shanghai” is an autobiographical book written by Nien Cheng who expressed her painful personal experience during the Great Cultural Revolution in China. To understand it better I’d like to make a brief historical overview. Chinese Cultural Revolution was a rebellion with the participation of working people and students who stood up against bureaucracy in the communist party.
What were the reasons for the Revolution? It was initiated by Mao Zedun in 1966 to affirm his ideology. He also tried to destroy political opposition. Nien Cheng was guiltlessly imprisoned for six years. She was thought to be a spy because she studied and worked in England. Her book “Life and Death in Shanghai” is based on her practical knowledge, feelings, and sufferings in that period. I must admit that the book captivates attention from the first pages and it seems impossible to put it away until the end. The success lies in sincere and vivid depiction. Besides, the story is written in a lively and fluent language. I remember having read that she rewrote the book for five times, expressing thoughts, checking linguistic mistakes and finally shortening it. I think that Cheng’s imprisonment didn’t influence her as much as the death of her daughter did. It stimulated her to write a book and reveal the truth about Cultural Revolution. History keeps many similar stories, but this one is especially tragic. Nien’s daughter was killed because she didn’t denounce her mother. The girl was mortally beaten. But it was arranged like a suicide as the body was thrown off the 9th floor. Nien Cheng has never forgotten (let alone forgiven) murder of her innocent daughter. Children’s death is the most unbearable pain of all. Continue reading →
The 1950s were a crucial period in world history. In spite of the fact that World War II had already ended, the turbulence and conflicts in international political relations, as well as the domestic policy within the US, still caused numerous troubles to the extent that the events that had occurred during this period practically shaped the future of the US and the entire world. In fact, it should be said that the 1950s were the years of important changes on both national and international levels, and these changes and new trends were not always positive. In stark contrast, some of the trends typical to the 1950s truly threatened to the democratic development of the US and the rest of the world. On the other hand, the 1950s became an extremely important point in the history of the Civil Rights movements in the US as well as in the entire world. Continue reading →
Traditionally, religion played an extremely important role in the life of people. In fact, religions accompanied people through their life and often religion was very helpful for many people who searched for a new purpose in life. At the same time, in spite of the declared openness of numerous religions to all potential adepts, there was a category of people that used to be excluded from religious communities. These people were inmates who lost only their freedom, but also lost the possibility to practice the religion they get used to. In such a situation, the position of prisoners was apparently irrelevant to the democratic principles and civil rights and this is why, in the late 20th century, American inmates got the opportunity to practice religions in prison and they could be even converted into some religion while being in prison. Continue reading →
Dress is an important part of our everyday lives, and it has important influence on how people perceive us in all usual settings. The way we dress is accountable for the very first impression we make on people when we encounter them in a habitual or unusual setting. This is a way to make sure that one gets at least a glimpse of the person’s socioeconomic status, class one belongs to, personal preferences and style, and perhaps even professional characteristics. That is why dress became such an important component of everyday routine and contributes so strongly to the initial impression.
To test how important dress is in everyday life, it is important at times to give up the usual routine and dress in a style that is not habitual for a person. I ventured this when I put on evening dress when going to a supermarket. The reaction of people to it told me that it was an important fashion statement that was treated with a respective change in attitude. Continue reading →
Review Internet Resources
Nowadays the problem of food culture healthy way of life is getting to be increasingly important. Naturally, such trends affect education and may be a primary concern of lesson plans. At the same time, the wide spread of Internet and IT provides the possibility to use new technologies in developing efficient lesson plan.
In this respect, speaking about the problem of food culture it is possible to dwell upon the following websites Healthy Meals Resource system (1) and The Food Guide Pyramid (2). The former website is oriented on children at the age of 8-10 and it suggests plenty of information about child nutrition programs. To put it more precisely, the site contains information as for proper nutrition of children that may be very helpful in the classroom. Continue reading →
Willy Loman, the unsuccessful salesman whose failure in life constitutes the crux of the conflict in The Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller is at the same time a very sympathetic character. His life is a tragic one; he does not trade well; he mistreats his wife and commit adultery; nevertheless he remains attractive to the reader, evoking pity and sympathy.
Willy Loman deserves pity and compassion because his failure can be partially blamed on the capitalist system in which he had been all his life. It is this merciless system that forced to move around all his life without hope for a peaceful and prosperous old age. He did not do well in the system; but it is the mercilessness of the whole establishment that touches readers’ hearts. It is the system in which it does not matter if you named someone Howard, like Willy did for his current boss, because you “cannot sell it” (Act II). To Willy, these symbols mean something, but they are nothing in the business world where money is everything, and human personality means little if it is not supported with money. Readers who do not connect with the clumsy, ineffective salesman who betrays his wife can connect with the indignation about the system, and this makes Willy attractive to them. Continue reading →
The world history of cars is connected with the names of Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler in Germany; Louis Renault, Rene Panhard, Emile Lavassor and the Peugeot brothers in France, and Frank and Charles Duryea, Ransom E. Olds, Charles King, Elwood Haynes, David Buick and Henry Ford and many others in the United States [Wright, 1996]. They all made the great impact on the universal love and worship of cars and the freedom they can give.
The introduction of cars revolutionized almost all aspects of life in the United States. The automobile industry was one of the most innovative and profitable ever since.
It is interesting that the US automobile industry partially owes the first steps of its history to William Steinway, owner of Steinway & Sons piano factory, who bought US manufacturing right for Daimler cars in the United States. By 1891 the Daimler Motor Company, owned by Steinway, was producing petrol engines for tramway cars, carriages, quadricycles, fire engines and boats in a plant in Hartford, CT. [Bottorff, 200 ].
“Orientalism set the real boundaries between human beings…”
David Henry Hwang
David Henry Hwang wrote “a play about Western imperialism and Eastern deception”. Hwang takes a true story of spying and astonishing sexual misidentification and transforms it into a complex dealing of cultural, social, racial, political, and sexual issues that has surprised his audience with its extraordinary beauty.
It’s necessary to admit Hwang’s original way of writing and portraying characters in his works. Such cultural questions as race and gender relations, socio-economic inequality of society are asked in every Hwang’s work. His first play, “FOB” – an acronym for “fresh off the boat” – marked the beginning of his grow as a playwright.
Hwang was growing up in California as a Chinese American. It made him politically mindful; his deep attention to his Chinese identity, Chinese roots, and mainstream American culture is clear in the central conflicts of lots of his works. The issues that occur between East and West are skillfully illustrated in his works too. Continue reading →
Marriage is a specific form of relationship that has developed in human society as a way to make interactions between genders more orderly and subordinate the instinct of proliferation to the norms of society. It is defined by Catholic Encyclopaedia as “a legitimate union between husband and wife” (Ryan, 2003). The concept of legitimacy is derived from some authority, be it religious or civil that sanctions the union between two people. This sanctioning serves to create a type of bond between two people that leads to the existence of certain responsibilities and obligations of both parties, namely of husband and wife. These responsibilities are also an essential part of marriage and define it as a specific type of union.
These obligations refer in the first place to sexual intercourse. In this sense, they are culturally defined to a great extent. Thus, some cultures strictly require either partners, or at least the woman, to have had no prior sexual experience before getting married, whereas in others, like in modern American culture, this experience has almost become a prerequisite. During the marriage itself, most cultures and sometimes even legal contracts stipulate that both partners should have no sexual intercourse with parties other than their spouse, although “among some savage tribes the husband permits his guests to have intercourse with his wife, or loans her for hire” (Ryan, 2003). In most societies, however, such sexual intercourse with an individual other than one’s spouse is strongly discouraged and “has also often been criminalized, especially in the case of a person who is a representative of the government” (Wikipedia, 2006). Continue reading →