The perception of organizations as political entities is based on the idea that corporations are not rational actors, but instead collections of disparate individuals with conflicting interests.
This concept reflects the political frame for viewing the world developed by Bolman and Deal (National Defense University). Many organizations will be impacted by the political movements in their midst that will seriously affect organizational decision-making.
Politics in organizations can be understood in the Aristotelian sense, in which “politics stems from a diversity of interests” (Ratzburg, 2000). Within organizations, this means that people are not tabula rasa when they come to the organization; instead, they bring their interests, desires, and needs that can conflict with each other and with the overall goal of the organization. Continue reading
We often do, to be sure, excuse
people for what they have done
when they tell us (and we believe them)
that they could not have done otherwise
(Harry Frankfurt “Alternate Possibilities & Moral Responsibility”)
Harry Frankfurt’s work “Alternate Possibilities & Moral Responsibility, ” is a philosophical paper on determinism and moral responsibility and their compatibility with the “principle of alternate possibilities” and freedom of choice.
The paper is only one example of the great amount of “freedom and determinism” debate papers.
The free-will problem, as the author calls it, is, in his opinion, closely related to the principle of alternate possibilities, which states that a person is morally responsible for what he has done only if he could have done otherwise.
Mr. Frankfurt in his work completely disagrees with such a wording of the principle and offers his own, more relevant one: a person is not morally responsible for what he has done if he did it only because he could not have done otherwise.
The author is particularly disturbed with the correlation of this formulation with the idea of the compatibility of moral responsibility and determinism. According to Frankfurt, anyone who accepts it is thereby committed to believing that these principles are incompatible. He, on the other hand, is an advocate of the Compatibilist ideas that state the opposite. Frankfurt and other followers of the Compatibility concept believe that there is a correlation between the determinism and the moral responsibility, depending on the circumstances which advocate for the individual’s actions. Continue reading
Anybody leaving on a dangerous assignment to a foreign land needs to realize that there are two possible routes to take in foreign policy. Teddy Roosevelt insisted that one should carry a big stick to intimidate one’s adversaries. Mahatma Gandhi, in contrast, advised a more peaceful policy that will carry no stick.
Today’s reality convincingly proves that the time when sticks were taken out and brandished for every conceivable purpose is gone. Today, a politician has to act wisely, speak softly, and use negotiations wherever possible to prevent the use of force.
Negotiations often seem a pure waste of time to someone with a military background. It can be a waste indeed when people do not know how to do it properly. Trying to resolve the conflict peacefully is a challenge to one’s abilities, brains, and experience. To meet this challenge head-on, it is helpful to adopt a few necessary tactics.
First of all, an excellent point to start is to find out what the other party wants. These wishes should not be taken for granted from their demands, since speeches may be masking something else. Quite a lot of people believe today, for instance, that North Korea is merely manipulating the West to extort financial assistance for the abandonment of nuclear weapons and may not, in fact, have any to dismantle. Looking carefully into the situation of the opponent and trying to understand the inner drives enables one to use the power of persuasion more effectively. Continue reading
The issue of home cooking and fast food is considered to be controversial, and many-sided one. It can not be called a problem, but there are a lot of opinions and statements, and there are a lot of false ones as well.
For example, people are used to believing the fast food restaurants are the signs of the modern world, but in reality, some of them are not much younger than the cities themselves. Here Ancient Roman towns with their bread-and-olive stands or about East Asian noodle shops should be mentioned. Later on appeared the famous hamburgers as the earliest fast food products in America.
Nowadays the term fast food is usually associated with the chain McDonalds.
One could often hear about the fast food damaging health of people; there is an opinion that the fast food manufacturers should warn their consumers that their food could make them fat. The fact is even if it is done, there is little guarantee that all people will follow this piece of advice. Continue reading
“…once you know what the question actually is,
you’ll know what the answer means”.
The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy
The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy is a book discovered by alien researcher Ford Prefect during his researches on the planet of the Earth. It took him fifty years to compose the wisdom of Galaxy in the form of a small book. It’s a book in the book as Prefect’s Guide gave the name to the famous comic fiction series created by Douglas Adams. Adams expressed his ideas with peculiar wit and ambiguity and made the readers laugh and think about important issues simultaneously. The book can serve a useful service to anybody who reads it. It can be a good entertainment for teenagers, good cosmic saga for the admires of fiction novels, influential work for those, who are tired of primitive fiction. As it was written in the School Library Journal “As parody, it’s marvelous: It contains just about every science fiction cliche you can think of. As humor, it’s, well, hysterical.” (1). Also, the book contains political criticism and touches a lot of questions, which go far beyond the limits of merely entertaining reading. Continue reading
The Faerie Queene is probably one of the most noteworthy works written by Edmund Spenser. It is characterized by the hidden sense that even the slightest details within the book may possess.
At the same time, it is necessary to underline that the book is highly allegorical and many images are very symbolic. This is why often a reader has to carefully look beyond what he/she sees in the images and characters, which are quite simple at first glance. Probably one of the most interesting things in the Faerie Queene book 1 is the allegoric image of the Anglican church and its struggle with other churches depicted symbolically in the traits, actions, and relations of the main characters of the book, notably in the image of Redcrosse Knight of Holiness.
In fact, it is quite difficult to trace an analogy between the main character of the book and any of the churches, which existed in Europe. Taking into considerations the historical background that naturally influenced Edmund Spenser, while he had been writing his book, it is possible to reveal what the Redcrosse Knight of Holiness symbolise. In general, the main character of the book may be referred to as an allegoric symbol of the Anglican church. The reason why Redcrosse Knight of Holiness is preferably a symbol of Anglican Church, i.e., the Protestant Church of England may be seen in his name and actions. Continue reading
Humans are social beings and exist as members of social groups that rely on a particular structure that reflects hierarchies, formal and informal networks, and can at times overlap. In communication, people seek for these overlapping structures to facilitate their navigation across human systems. Thus, we aim to find who are the friends and acquaintances of our friends, trying to establish their social location, including their connections, their strength, and features, their relative position in the status hierarchy. In the process of socialization, people learn to find information about each other’s social location and to manipulate the impression of the social location they produce themselves. Continue reading
1. Of the different encounters with the field of biology, the most important for me was the internship I did at the Center for Molecular Epidemiology at the University of Singapore. The course performed under the guidance of Professor Chia Kee Seng helped me gain exciting insights into the secrets of research, day-to-day activities of scientists, and the latest advances in the field. It is one thing to read about the dazzling progress of science in books, and another exposed to the vibrant scholarly community and its activities.
During my internship, I was involved in several journal clubs and seminars, participated in project discussions with various researchers in molecular epidemiology, and assisted in data entry and preparation of numerous PowerPoint presentations. This broad scope of activities allowed me to come into contact with different directions in research and acquaint myself with alternative theories and viewpoints. Besides, I was able to meet a large number of professionals and make acquaintances that can form the beginning of a professional network. Continue reading
The poem “Mirror” by Sylvia Plath presents the concept of the simple household object from an unusual angle so that the reader gets a glimpse of the feelings and ideas that a mirror can have. This stylistic device is called personification – the presentation of inanimate objects as if these are human beings. The mirror is in this case only a pretext to convey some ideas about human life, not an attempt to engage in an in-depth analysis of the world of things. The mirror can also be regarded as a metaphor for some broader notion.
To understand what the metaphor stands for, let us examine the nature of the object depicted in the poem. The mirror apparently has a character. It prides itself on its objectivity and impartiality, stating that it is “exact” and has “no preconceptions.” In spite of its ambition at objectivity, the mirror does not hesitate to give emotional comments, for instance comparing the woman who looks into it to “a terrible fish.” The mirror even has a heart, as it states that the speckles on the opposite wall have become “a part of … heart”. In the very attempt to underscore the objectivity of presentation, the mirror reveals its pride in being such a truthful presenter. Continue reading
It seems not so difficult to answer the question – what are all people struggling for? What are they looking for during the whole lifetime? They certainly want to become happy. The notion of happiness is a complex and not one-sided for sure, but there are some common constituents of it for most people. No matter how much we want to be happy, but we so often do things that harm us instead of good, i. e. we take some irrational decisions or steps. It is natural for people to make mistakes and we would probably be never able to avoid all wrong choices in our lives.
The best way out if you feel you did something wrong is to stop and to analyze why it happened so, and what should have been done differently to avoid the unpleasant situation or problem, this process is called rationalization. For the theory of rational living Dr. Albert Ellis is known – he was the author of REBT (Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy) in 1995. Thus the notion of rational living became essential and often used in the field of psychology. Continue reading