Category Archives: Term papers

Convention on Biodiversity Term Paper

The Convention on Biological Diversity, which is also known as Biodiversity Convention, is said to be the international treaty adopted in June 2002 in Rio de Janeiro. The Convention seeks to accomplish the series of tasks and has three primary goals. The first one is the conservation of biological diversity, second- sustainable utilization of its components and finally, the last goal is to share fairly and equitably the benefits arising from genetic resources. In general terms, the purpose of the Convention is the development of the national conservation strategies and strategies for sustainable use of biological diversity. It is referred to as the principal document on regarding the sustainable development. The Convention was open to the signature on June 5, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro at the Earth Summit and entered into force on December 29, 1993. Continue reading

Irish Literature Term Paper

Wise people say that all new things are well forgotten old ones. This saying has been proved to be true historically. Ancient art came back to artists’ studios, musicians’ houses, and architectural constructions during the period of Renaissance. The whole world at that time felt the need for high-quality art, and every country one after another entered the era of Renaissance, revealing the masterpieces of the past and creating new even more fascinating ones. Irish people were not an exception at this point. By the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th Ireland entered the period of Irish Literary Revival, also known as Irish Literary Renaissance or Celtic Renaissance.

This cultural, or if to be exact literary movement, was a part of going then political action, the primary goal of which was to struggle for independence and self-government of Ireland. Though the primary functions of writers, poets, and other cultural workers differed from the tasks of political leaders of the country, their influence on minds of Irish people was substantial. This period is characterized by increased activity of literary men, especially writers, poets and playwrights, the establishment of new theaters and the great interest of ordinary people towards Irish literary heritage. Continue reading

Term Paper: Hegemonic Stability Theory or Balance of Power

International relations are very complicated, and historically they were of a paramount concern of many specialists, which attempted to explain the logic of international relations from a scientific point of view. As a result, a number of theories aiming at the explanation of the foreign affairs have appeared in political science that was quite natural because there were a lot of different views and opinions which often were contradicting to each other.

However, it does not necessarily mean that the arguments and theoretical arguments concerning the essence and fundamental principles of international relations. At the same time, it should be pointed out that a significant impact on the development of numerous political theories related to international relations produced and keeps producing the actual situation in the national, regional and world politics. In other words, the current situation in politics, beginning from the federal level and till the world scale, defines or, to put it more precisely, influences the theoretical issues which are developed in a particular historical period. Continue reading

Theory in Sociology Term Paper

The three dominant theories used in sociology are conflict theory, functionalism and symbolic interactionism. Although they have been complemented with more recent inventions such as feminism, post-modernism and post-structuralism, and social construction theory, the three remain a strong traditional framework within which a sociologist can craft hypotheses and evaluate facts.

These theories can explain a host of phenomena, including capitalism and class conflict and culture, suggesting differing accounts of them.

Functionalism is a macrosociological level theory that strives to explain various phenomena from the point of view of larger social structures. Concentrating on social order, it regards society as “a system of interrelated, interdependent parts, which are social institutions or structures, e.g. a part may be family, education, economic, religion, etc.” (van der Veen, 2003). Thus, society is perceived as objective reality measurable with the help of scientific methods, treated in the positivist vein. An individual is connected to the overall society through its structure. All the elements of structure are assumed to cooperate in a coherent manner for the improvement of the whole society. This theory is also called structural functionalism because it “emphasizes the functions within the structure of the main parts of society and the contributions of each for the overall society’s survival and growth” (Ferrante, 1998). Scholars have shown functions to be either manifest or latent, but they are inherent in every type of structure. Continue reading

Global Politics Term Paper

1. Introduction.
The present term paper aims at analyzing global issues and challenges that now exist. Awareness is a necessary prerequisite to understanding. In today’s world, everyone must have a degree of literacy regarding the global problems, issues, concerns, and trends that increasingly impact our lives. Global literacy entails reasonable familiarity with global issues that dominate the news. It means every person should know some facts about global issues to be able to analyze others.

The essay characterizes the contemporary international political system for the economy, technology, social classes, cultures, environment problems, theoretical perspectives such as idealism, realism, liberalism and the rich and poor gap.

2. The World Economy. Rich and poor gap. Continue reading

Patriarchy Term Paper

Patriarchy is one of the oldest foundations of family life that has supported the functioning of families for centuries. Patriarchy is broadly defined as “the sociological condition where male members of a society tend to predominate in positions of power” (Wikipedia, 2006). Max Weber defines patriarchy in the following way:

the authority of the father, the husband, the senior of the house, the sib elder over the members of the household and sib; the rule of the master and patron over bondsmen, serfs, freedmen; of the lord over the domestic servants and household officials’ of the prince over house- and court-officials, nobles of office, clients, vassals; of the patrimonial lord and sovereign prince over the ‘subjects (Gingrich, 2002).

Whereas the utility of patriarchy in more massive social structures is a matter for a separate debate, this paper will consider arguments in favor of patriarchal arrangements within families. Inside families, patriarchy results in a specific power structure and power distribution that can provide the backbone for any family arrangements. At the same time, these benefits are accompanied by severe shortcomings that can decrease the viability of the family.

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China Term Paper

The People’s Republic of China is the biggest and the most powerful state in Asia, which impresses by dynamic development and diversity. The phenomenon of China’s economic success today is based on its culture, history, and traditions preserved for centuries and which gave a chance for such tremendous development of Chinese nation today.

Even today, China remains quite close society for Europeans, as its language, mentality, religious beliefs and social philosophy are unique and different from Western ones. The Chinese language is spoken by more than one billion people; it has many different dialects but has the only written communication, with hieroglyphs, which have the same meaning for all dialects (as different words may sound differently on local dialects). The Chinese language played a key-uniting factor in the establishment of Chinese national identity and unity for centuries. Continue reading

Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Term Paper

Erik Erikson advanced his theory of psychosocial development that claims child’s development to proceed in a strictly predetermined order. This development includes eight separate stages. His basic idea was that a child has to pass all eight steps in an orderly manner to complete successful development. If any of the stages is not passed successfully, the result can be a different personality or other psychological problems.

The eight stages include: Continue reading

Philosophy Term Paper on Egoism

Psychological egoism is the belief that all people in their actions are guided only by self-interest. People always pursue their own pleasure, and not that of their ‘neighbors’ in the biblical sense. In this light, psychological egoism rules out altruism in people. In contrast, it claims everything that looks like altruism is in fact disguised egoism because people do things for the sake of others when they know they will take pleasure in the act of the sacrifice. Doing things for others gives individuals pleasure that they cannot obtain in a different way. The concept of psychological egoism contrasts with the principle of ethical egoism. Its truthfulness is debatable at best since there are valid arguments against the reality and universality of psychological egoism.

Psychological Egoism versus Ethical Egoism
Although both notions deal with inherent egoism present in human beings, they differ in their approach to it. Proponents of psychological egoism insist that egoism in human beings is unavoidable reality. People, they believe, are prone to act in such a way that their self-interest comes first in all situations.

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Fetal Abuse Term Paper

The problem of drug abuse if one of the most serious social problems nowadays. People who use drugs spoil their lives and create a serious threat to the society. Drug use is a chronic progressive illness, which is characterized by impaired control over the drug use and preoccupation with drugs and its use despite possible bad consequences. The issue becomes even more complicated when it comes to the use of drugs by pregnant women. Moral issues make the problem more complicated as it’s sometimes difficult to distinguish the limits of responsibility as pregnant woman causes harm not only to herself but also to her unborn child. “Fetal rights” is a comparatively new notion, which stands for new judicial, social and moral norm. This notion means that unborn children possess their rights and deserve same treatment and protection as children do (Coady, 1997). This means that women can be criminally charged for causing voluntary of involuntary harm to their unborn children. Women can be deprived of their maternal rights for the use of alcohol of drugs during their pregnancy. This issue became especially burning during the last several decades. There are several reasons for this.

First of all, the growing social protection and multiple social and religious organizations attract public attention to this problem. Another reason is a growing number of women who use different kinds of drugs during pregnancy. Statistics show the tendency of drug use increase during pregnancy. “According to hospital surveys, approximately 11 percent of pregnant women use at least one of the following drugs: heroin, methadone, amphetamines, PCP, marijuana, and cocaine.” (Chasnoff, 1998) Continue reading