The rich history of Nokia dates back to more than a hundred years and consists of many stories, events and milestones that were brought along by twists, bumps and turns of the world history and history of industrialization and modernization. It all started in 1865 when an engineer Fredrik Idestam built a wood pulp mill on the banks of the Tammerkoski Rapids in southern Finland and started his business of manufacturing paper. Few years later, he went on by building a second mill but already on the bank of Nokianvirta River – the place that Nokia got its name from. (Story of Nokia) As the consumption of paper was increasing due to the industrial growth in Europe, Nokia’s products soon became of great success and started being exported first to Russia and then to the United Kingdom and France. (The Founding of Nokia)
The hydroelectricity, used by the wood-pulp mill, also attracted the Finnish Rubber Works Group that established their company on the banks of Nokianvirta in 1920s and started using “NOKIA” as their brand name. After the end of World War II the Finnish Rubber Works purchased the majority of the Finnish Cable Works shares, the company that had grown rapidly as a result of the increasing need for telegraph and telephone networks. Soon after, the Rubber Works and the Cable Works companies started working as partners, later in 1967 they merged to form the Nokia Group and started working on development and growth of their new solid company. It was at that time when “the seeds of Nokia’s global success in telecommunications were planted” into Finnish earth. (The Founding of Nokia) Continue reading
Based on our findings regarding the main social and economic factors, which have been described in detail in the former two papers, this part lays out the foundations for our prospective marketing campaign in Indonesia. Working on both the strategic and the operational levels, this marketing plan will aims to describe our recommendations to a successful transformation of Chatak Chaat’s business concepts into the Indonesian market. As most of our findings so far support the feasibility of the idea, this plan concentrates on the “HOWs” instead of the “IFs” and the “WHATs”; each recommendation is backed up with figures and explicit tasks to be fulfilled as well as projections whenever necessary. Continue reading
Industrial revolution brought changes into different spheres of life. At the end of 18th century economy in European countries was mainly agricultural. Farmers used to pay for their land with manufactured goods. Technologies were poorly developed. Although some kinds of machines were already invented, they weren’t widely spread yet. People still had to use natural resources, like water and wind. In this way it seems to be even more significant that in several decades economy in Europe radically changed for the best. Modern scientists distinguish three main upheavals in the productive forces and the structure of society itself. The revolution of 18-19th century was a turning point from agricultural society to the industrial one.
A lot of people were involved in coal production. With the coming of industrialization, more coal was needed as a fuel. New factories and mines needed more workers. Work in mines was extremely dangerous, especially due to the fact that they gradually became deeper. Coal was mainly used as fuel and at that time it was extremely expensive. Continue reading
“The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands
in moments of comfort and convenience, but where
he stands at times of challenge and controversy.”
Martin Luther King, Jr.
The American values evolved from the historical background of the United States and its inhabitants. The first colonizers, who arrived to “the land of the free”, the gold miners, embodying the “American dream”, the anti-slavery and minority rights’ movements – have all contributed to the list of the basic American values. The latter have not been stated as such and each U.S. inhabitant would probably name a slightly different list of values, due to the subjective nature of the issue. Nevertheless, the basic list of the most important things: freedom, equality, democracy and humanity, individualism (privacy), wealth, time – remains the core of the values system of any American. Certainly, the set of values has somewhat evolved in the course of centuries, especially due to the XXth-century revolutionary changes in politics, human rights, ecology, financial spheres, technologies, etc. The rapid changes in most parts of life has made the Americans become more flexible and compromising in their attitudes and values. And mass media has played an important role on this “evolution of values”. Continue reading
Historically, human society witnessed numerous actions which were often perceived as inhuman or contradicting to human nature. Crimes and violent behavior of certain individuals could be regarded just as a minor crimes compared to the genocide organized in different parts of the world by different people. At the same time, the terrible and inhuman acts committed by people were viewed as crimes that needed the most severe punishment since the people that committed them were perceived as outcast or simply as people with some mental problems. Nowadays, the attitude to such people as well as to such crimes as genocide, tortures or unmotivated violence are still viewed as the most serious crimes which are totally unacceptable for the modern, highly democratic society where human life and freedom are declared to be the highest value of the modern society. Continue reading
Colonization process undoubtedly brought considerable changes into the life, outlook and habits of Native Americans, let alone the environment. What was the attitude of Native Americans towards newcomers? To answer this question, it is important to say that at the beginning of the colonization there were a lot of conflicts between different tribes. Some of them hoped that newcomers would somehow improve Indians’ life standard with the help of more effective tools and innovative ideas.
Other tribes kept to the point that everything new brings new troubles. They believed that new life values and philosophy would have a negative influence on their culture and could even destroy it. Both were eventually right. On the one hand, Native Americans received new advanced tools for agriculture, which greatly contributed into the development of their culture, particularly farming. On the other hand, they had to pay too high a price for such conveniences. As an expression of gratitude, Native Americans taught colonists how to grow corn, potatoes, sunflower, tobacco and other plants. They shared knowledge concerning farming, hunting and proper organization of household. Continue reading
It is necessary to underline the fact that in order to provide services of the highest quality a company needs to be fully prepared for reception of clients and offering them services they need. In actuality, this means that a contemporary company operating in the tourism and hospitality industry should have facilities, well-qualified personnel, creative and material potential to organize various events, which may vary consistently from wedding to national sales meeting or trade show. In fact, the extent, to which a company could meet the expectations and needs of participants of such events, defines the customer satisfaction and, therefore, the popularity of the company and interest of customers to its services. Continue reading
At first glance, the task of comparing these two philosophers – both undoubtedly Christian, but so very different – seems downright ridiculous. What possible could have in common the most classical of Renaissance magi and the man who, when Satan supposedly materialized before his eyes, threw his inkwell at him? Upon examining the works proposed, I found that, at first glance, they have no similarities in their anthropological vision. At second, some similarities in concept begin to appear into being. And yet, the third glance shows that, though they come to similar practical conclusions – for they must work with one world in practice – their precepts are completely different, and the ideas they propagate lead to very different modes of thought. This is shown very clearly in their concepts of human nature. Continue reading
Sustainable development is not new for the energy industry and for many years the global community has been concerned about finding the solution to the scarcity of energy resources. The problem can be solved through shifting the focus from minimizing the consumption of energy to increasing the efficiency is the best alternative in satisfying the growing demands for energy. Some progress has been made by the European countries, while the United States seem to be uninvolved in the process even though the economy allows development and implementation of the new technologies. This paper discusses the importance of the sustainable development in the energy sector and is aimed at energy leaders and governmental institutions. Continue reading