The rich history of Nokia dates back to more than a hundred years and consists of many stories, events and milestones that were brought along by twists, bumps and turns of the world history and history of industrialization and modernization. It all started in 1865 when an engineer Fredrik Idestam built a wood pulp mill on the banks of the Tammerkoski Rapids in southern Finland and started his business of manufacturing paper. Few years later, he went on by building a second mill but already on the bank of Nokianvirta River – the place that Nokia got its name from. (Story of Nokia) As the consumption of paper was increasing due to the industrial growth in Europe, Nokia’s products soon became of great success and started being exported first to Russia and then to the United Kingdom and France. (The Founding of Nokia)
The hydroelectricity, used by the wood-pulp mill, also attracted the Finnish Rubber Works Group that established their company on the banks of Nokianvirta in 1920s and started using “NOKIA” as their brand name. After the end of World War II the Finnish Rubber Works purchased the majority of the Finnish Cable Works shares, the company that had grown rapidly as a result of the increasing need for telegraph and telephone networks. Soon after, the Rubber Works and the Cable Works companies started working as partners, later in 1967 they merged to form the Nokia Group and started working on development and growth of their new solid company. It was at that time when “the seeds of Nokia’s global success in telecommunications were planted” into Finnish earth. (The Founding of Nokia) Continue reading
I have decided to become a flesh made female, or better say a young lady, who lived with her family in the house or better say the room during Tudor times in England. I have chosen 16th century England for my paper, as I consider this country as well as the period to be very important to the Renaissance epoch and to all changes that occurred later. It was the period of changes in almost all aspects of people’s lives- economical, religious, cultural and political. Entrepreneurship was developing, as well as mechanisms of commerce. But still there were many poor people, and that was a great problem of that time.
I woke up just when the sun came up. My younger brother was sleeping next to me. I was so happy to see him alive as two my younger sisters and little brother died last year. Sisters died of hunger and brother had some disease that was incompatible with life, as my mother told me. Continue reading
When the Bolsheviks came to power in 1917 they were faced with a wide variety of problems. These problems included social, economical, and political problems of the preceding Tsarist era as well as such of the new political regime. Additionally, the country was underdeveloped, not even nearly ready for socialism, and on the verge of Civil War. Having overtaken the country in this situation the Bolsheviks had to take series of political, military, economical and social steps in order to consolidate their power. Below steps takes in these four areas will be discussed in detail. Continue reading
Based on our findings regarding the main social and economic factors, which have been described in detail in the former two papers, this part lays out the foundations for our prospective marketing campaign in Indonesia. Working on both the strategic and the operational levels, this marketing plan will aims to describe our recommendations to a successful transformation of Chatak Chaat’s business concepts into the Indonesian market. As most of our findings so far support the feasibility of the idea, this plan concentrates on the “HOWs” instead of the “IFs” and the “WHATs”; each recommendation is backed up with figures and explicit tasks to be fulfilled as well as projections whenever necessary. Continue reading
Industrial revolution brought changes into different spheres of life. At the end of 18th century economy in European countries was mainly agricultural. Farmers used to pay for their land with manufactured goods. Technologies were poorly developed. Although some kinds of machines were already invented, they weren’t widely spread yet. People still had to use natural resources, like water and wind. In this way it seems to be even more significant that in several decades economy in Europe radically changed for the best. Modern scientists distinguish three main upheavals in the productive forces and the structure of society itself. The revolution of 18-19th century was a turning point from agricultural society to the industrial one.
A lot of people were involved in coal production. With the coming of industrialization, more coal was needed as a fuel. New factories and mines needed more workers. Work in mines was extremely dangerous, especially due to the fact that they gradually became deeper. Coal was mainly used as fuel and at that time it was extremely expensive. Continue reading
The problem of the legacy of the Enlightenment traditionally attracted the attention of many specialists, including the most significant ones which made a great contribution in the development of modern science. One of such specialists is Sigmund Freud who could not ignore the legacy of the Enlightenment in his works, even though it was not the main goal of his researches. In this respect, it is worthy of mention his theory of dream interpretation which seems to be the most closely related to Freud’s views on the legacy of the Enlightenment and, at the same time, represents a profound work on the problem of dream and its perception by human beings.
On analyzing his theory of dream interpretation, it is primarily necessary to point out that Sigmund Freud has developed his theory of dream interpretation at the epoch when such concepts as superego and id have not been clearly defined yet and which, nonetheless, could be found in his work dedicated to the problem of dream research. Moreover, the concepts of superego and id are directly linked to Freud’s views on the Enlightenment. Continue reading
“The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands
in moments of comfort and convenience, but where
he stands at times of challenge and controversy.”
Martin Luther King, Jr.
The American values evolved from the historical background of the United States and its inhabitants. The first colonizers, who arrived to “the land of the free”, the gold miners, embodying the “American dream”, the anti-slavery and minority rights’ movements – have all contributed to the list of the basic American values. The latter have not been stated as such and each U.S. inhabitant would probably name a slightly different list of values, due to the subjective nature of the issue. Nevertheless, the basic list of the most important things: freedom, equality, democracy and humanity, individualism (privacy), wealth, time – remains the core of the values system of any American. Certainly, the set of values has somewhat evolved in the course of centuries, especially due to the XXth-century revolutionary changes in politics, human rights, ecology, financial spheres, technologies, etc. The rapid changes in most parts of life has made the Americans become more flexible and compromising in their attitudes and values. And mass media has played an important role on this “evolution of values”. Continue reading
Historically, human society witnessed numerous actions which were often perceived as inhuman or contradicting to human nature. Crimes and violent behavior of certain individuals could be regarded just as a minor crimes compared to the genocide organized in different parts of the world by different people. At the same time, the terrible and inhuman acts committed by people were viewed as crimes that needed the most severe punishment since the people that committed them were perceived as outcast or simply as people with some mental problems. Nowadays, the attitude to such people as well as to such crimes as genocide, tortures or unmotivated violence are still viewed as the most serious crimes which are totally unacceptable for the modern, highly democratic society where human life and freedom are declared to be the highest value of the modern society. Continue reading
While anti-Americanism has deep roots in the Arab world, the situation is quite unusual in Iran, where the United States has in last several years become extremely popular. Of all the governments in the Middle East, the Iranian administration remains the most firm in confronting the United States. Not only does Iran not receive U.S. aid, but its regime is an enemy of America. However, this country, according to the recent opinion palls, has a significant amount of pro-Americanism.
The countries of Iran and America have a long history together. The political relations between them started when the Shah of Persia, Nassereddin Shah Qajar, sent a first ambassador to Washington D.C. in the 1800s. Until 1979, the countries remained political allies, sharing understanding and trust. However, the trust was broken due to the British led and series of other conflicts and incidents between the two nations. That caused the tension to develop in their relationship and the trust vanished. Nevertheless, the trust and friendship just shaded, not vanished completely. Continue reading
Each person has his/her own passion. In fact, we can be even unconscious that we have some passion but it gradually invades our soul and defines our development. At the same time, it is due to passion we can progress because our passion stimulates us to achieve new objectives and cope with new challenges we could have never even thought about if there were no passions. As for me, my passion is the communication with other people.
At first glance, it seems to be a normal need of an individual to communicate with another individual, but it is just a superficial view on the process of the communication. I strongly believe that the communication is one of the main advantages humans have compared to other species inhabiting our planet. Continue reading