Pay for Performance: What does it mean?
Human Resource Management research has long focused on the topic of compensation methods. Over time, HR managers have invented a wide assortment of compensation methods that include, among others, base salaries, bonuses, commissions, piece-rate plans, profit-sharing plans, fringe benefits, etc. One of recent improvements is the pay-for-performance method. Under this system, the supervisor regularly adjusts compensation in accordance with performance. The goal of such compensation plans is usually “to improve the equity of pay practices by providing more compensation to the highest performers” (US Merit Systems Protection Board, n.d.). Employees working in organizations applying pay-for-performance to determine at least a part of their salaries are motivated to put more effort in their work to receive positive assessment from their supervisors in the process of evaluation. At times, the management chooses to base its assessment on the opinion of an employee team. This method improves cooperation and creates good conditions for teamwork. Continue reading
The purpose of this term paper is to assess and discuss advantages and disadvantages of having a single currency at the global level. At first sight, the benefits and facility of a single currency are unquestionable. However, there is a clear and consistent need of tough-but-fair evaluation of the possible consequences of this.
Starting with the positive side, introduction of a single global currency can help the process of globalization and internationalization of business. Globalization itself being a controversial phenomenon, the advocates of the idea of free-market believe that the development of business is intrinsically linked to enhancement of social well-being. One may agree or disagree with it, yet under any scenario, the reduced cost of doing business can improve its efficiency and create grounds for innovation and better human resources management.
Transaction costs would be reduced not only for business. Banking system will also be alleviated from the burden of complex operations with different currencies:
‘To the extent that the foreign exchange work performed by multiple countries is replaced by the work of a single central bank, the total costs will be reduced’ (Bonpasse, 2006, p.121). Continue reading
Speaking about back end systems of Target.com, it is primarily necessary to point out that the site declares its high responsibility for all operations it deals with. To put it more precisely, on analyzing the basic operations, such as warehousing, packaging and shipping, it is possible to say that the creators of the site attempt to be as reliable as possible. However, on a deeper look, it is getting obvious that the reliability of the site cannot be fully guaranteed.
For instance, the shipping, been an extremely important operations is actually fully outsourced to third parties and the goods the site offers are delivered by different companies. Naturally, it is necessary to admit that the company are quite respectable but still there remains a question how the site that sells a product to a customer can guarantee the delivery of this product undamaged and in time if the site does not really deal with shipping but prefers to use other companies, such as UPS, US Postal Service, Yellow Transportation, and others, to fulfill this operation. Continue reading
E-commerce starts to gain more and more popularity around the world as the economy becomes globalized and physical borders between different states and trade zones get more transparent. Now one is able to buy absolutely anything without the need to leave the house with only a few clicks of the mouse. Americans can buy from Asia, Asians can buy from Europe or Africa, or any other part of the world which
In the following essay I will answer the normative question of economics, i.e. If goods purchased on the internet should be subjected to state sales tax and the positive question, i.e. what impact the repeal in taxed goods sold on the internet will have on a state’s government and retailers. I will use educated findings together with my personal opinion.
In order to better understand the specifics of e-commerce and its taxation one should explore how ecommerce differs from regular commerce that one understands well and taxes well. Ecommerce involves distributing, buying, selling, marketing and servicing different products and services over the internet and other computer networks that are setup around the world. The IT industry views ecommerce as a part of electronic business as long as it involves commercial transactions. Ecommerce is about electronic money transfers, e-marketing, online marketing, supply chain management, online transaction processing and electronic data interchange, as well as electronic inventory management, data-collection systems and electronic communications. The typical “tools for conducting electronic business is the WWW, internet, email, cell phones, extra and intranets and portable communication technology” (Jones 311). Continue reading
Management of the organization is one of the most important issues not only for the good performance, but actually for the actual existence of an organization.
Although, management of an organization is a very wide notion that includes different levels (from a small company to the level of state, that is of cause also an organization) and different types or organizations (religious, charity, profit based etc.) there are still many common principles for all this organizations.
Hewer, companies are the most common organizations nowadays, so it is worthwhile to examine the general principles and specific occasions of management for this particular type of organization. Continue reading
I would like to start by saying that in the modern world of technology, education software becomes more and more popular and the need for modern advances is apparent. Since there are more than 3000 different colleges, schools and universities in the USA alone, the market demand for different educational software is enormous. In the following essay I will speak about the market need for educational software and the areas that look the most attractive. I will use educated findings as well as personal opinion on the given matter.
Currently, there are several products on the educational software market which accurately reflect the existing market demand and need for these products. Among the market leaders are Blackboard group, MyDropBox, and Turnitin. All of these companies present products that either aim to multiply learning opportunities or dissuade cheating in an educational institution (Cusumano, 260).
One of the market needs is to assure proper student tracking. Various companies provide the module that allows smooth student tracking and utilization of campus assets. Such programs allow students and teaching staff to analyze programs and academic performance. One can register online, keep track of payments to the university and reimbursements as well as keep track of various effectiveness ratios each university uses to assess its performance and activities. There is a need in virtually all schools for positive attendance tracking, resource allocation and planning, let alone early intervention and retention, where both university staff and students can in a real-time mode online access necessary information and data (Mitri, 89). Continue reading
Migration from rural to urban areas has been observable throughout the history of mankind. This process accompanied industrial development of today’s prosperous nations and is now happening at a much faster rate in the developing ones. The problems posed by this process in the least developed nations, however, include the too fast migration rate that exceeds the absorption capacities of urban centers and leads to unemployment. To address these concerns in policy-making, scholars have advanced a number of theories to explain the phenomenon of migration. One of them is the Todaro model. This theory advances an interesting explanation of the nature of rural-urban migration and entails interesting policy implications, to be evaluated in this paper.
The idea behind the Todaro model is simple but workable: it “postulates that migration proceeds in response to urban-rural differences in expected income rather than actual earnings” (Todaro, Smith, 2006, p. 339). A rural worker contemplating a move to the city first projects expected earnings over a certain time horizon, then juxtaposes the returns from the move with the costs of the transfer to a different environment. If the difference from rural incomes seems impressive, the worker will make the plunge and change the residence. Continue reading
“Warfare is a matter of deception – of constantly creating false appearances, spreading disinformation, and employing trickery and deceit,” – wrote great Chinese thinker Sun Tsu several centuries ago. Almost the same conclusion drops McNamarra in The Fog of War. In his interview, which became the basis for the documentary movie shot by Errol Morris, Kennedy and Johnson Defense Secretary Robert McNamara uncovers truth about the war policy of the US and gives his ideas about the future of the country. I believe that Sun Tsu, who wrote about the art of war many centuries ago and counted on the principles of diplomacy and strategy, same as humanness and justice, would appreciate conclusions, made by Mc Namarra. Movie-interview consist of 11 “lessons” taught by the man, who was in the center of the US external policy and took an active part in two great wars, which had great influence on the history of the whole mankind.
I believe that Sun Tsu would agree with the principles, described by McNamarra. McNamarra, being a wonderful strategist and skillful planner, followed the principles, formulated by Sun Tsu many centuries ago. He used all possible means, including lies and deception, in order to smash the enemy. Lessons, taught by McNamarra echo some of war strategies, described by Sun Tsu in his Art of War. “Maximize efficiency,” “Get the data,” “Never say never”, “Belief and seeing are both often wrong,” and other lessons have much in common with war wisdom, proclaimed by Sun Tsu. Continue reading
Today every second or third teenager smokes. Smoking became a part of our life, just like a part of our style. Everyday we get up early in the morning and dream about a cigarette to make ourselves ‘wake up’. Of course all people know about the danger of smoking: we know about cancer, different inflammations, the effect of yellow teeth and hoarse voice, but we don’t care about it when buying a packet of cigarettes.
Nicotine is one of the most harmful poisons of the vegetable origin. Birds (pigeons, sparrows) die if only you bring the stick, moistened in the nicotine to their beak. The rabbit dies from ¼ drops of nicotine, the dog – ½. For a human being the mortal dose is from 50 to 100 mg, or, better say, 2-3 drops. Such an amount of nicotine gets everyday into the blood of a person, who smokes 20-25 cigarettes (each cigarette contains approximately 6-8 mg of nicotine, from which 3-4 mg get into the blood). Continue reading
Domestic violence has been acknowledged to be a rapidly growing concern all over the world during the last 20 years, and as a result, countries around the world are working on developing strategies to stop the violence and provide more mechanisms to protect women, men, and children who are battered and abused every day. For example, according to a subset of 94 police departments in Canada in 2002, approximately one-quarter (27%) of all victims of domestic crimes were victims of their close family member. Among all family violence victims, 6-in-10 (62%) were victims of violence at the hands of their husband or wife.
The domestic violence statistics are frightening, according to Mental Health Journal “… 2 million to 4 million US women are assaulted by a domestic partner every year. Twelve million women (25% of the female population) will be abused in their lifetime. Up to 35% of women and 22% of men presenting to the emergency department have experienced domestic violence” (Newton). Without a shadow of the doubt, domestic violence has an adverse effect on society, and before it is too late, some actions should be taken into matters. Continue reading