Expectations and Practices Essay:
Cultural expectations and practices are one of the major categories of cultural theory. Universality and versatility of this category is determined by the fact that these expectations and practices are present in all areas of the material, political, artistic, moral, household, physical culture.
Cultural practices are social and cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation and reiterated in certain societies and social groups for a long time.
Such practices are present in all social and cultural systems, and are essential to their existence. The practices are inherent in the different fields of culture, although their value varies in each of these areas, the most important position they occupy in the religion.
There are strong expectations and practices excluding innovations and deviations in behavior. They are characterized by a very long history, passing from generation to generation without any changes.
Another type is flexible and mobile practices. They have a wide enough range of variability, although their basic principles remain the same. In this case, the practices may have some new rules, regulations, and change depending on the situation, allowing alternative behaviors in different circumstances.
Cultural expectations and practices form the so-called collective memory of society and social groups, providing continuity in their development. In addition, separate groups, classes, layers have their own traditions. Each generation receives an available set of samples, and it not just take and assimilate them in their finished form, but always has their own interpretation and selection. In this sense, each generation selects not only its future, but also its past.
Society and social groups, taking some elements of cultural heritage, at the same time reject others, so the practices can be both positive (and traditionally accepted) and negative (traditionally denied).
Cultural expectations and practices can refer certain cultural patterns, institutions, customs, rituals, values, norms, ideas, styles, and so on.
Custom is a traditionally established order behavior. It is based on habit and refers to collective forms of action. Customs are patterns of action approved by society, which are recommended follow. The customs violators are punished by informal sanctions: disapproval, isolation, and shaming.
If the practices and customs are transferred from one generation to the next, they turn into a tradition. Some traditions are routine, and others in a convivial setting.
A kind of tradition is the rite is a set of actions established by custom or ritual. They expressed any religious ideas or household traditions. The rites are not limited to one social group, and relate to all segments of the population. The rites accompanying important moments of life, associated with the birth (baptism, naming), marriage (betrothal), coming into a new sphere of activity (military oath, initiation of the students, the workers) or switching to another age (initiation), death (funeral, burial, funeral meals).
Culture and society, is based on a system of values. Values are of utmost importance in any culture, because they determine human relationships with nature, society, surroundings, and environment. Mastering the values of the surrounding world, a person relies on well-established in his culture traditions, norms, customs, and gradually forms the core system and conventional values that control his or her life. On that basis, every culture has its own system of values, which shows its particular status in the world.
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