Realism is the style and method in literature and visual arts, which originated in the middle of the 19th century in France and moved to other European countries. In literature and visual arts realism strives to the most precise description of the reality without idealization.
Of course, the term realism is quite complicated for the objective understanding, because even the first monuments and sculptures of ancient Egypt were already realistic and the painters who copy the natural environment with the photographic precision are also called realists. The popularity of realism is based on the accessibility and clearness of the artistic methods. Realism is also the name of the philosophic trend which was popular in the 19th century.
The main principles of realism as the artistic trend are: rationalism, rational psychologism (the identification of psychics and consciousness); the truthful, comprehensive description of historic events, typical people in the typical circumstances); the principle of conformity to the reality; the emotions and behaviour and actions of the character are explained by his origin, social status and the conditions of his life; dramatizing as one of the main methods of the creation of the artistic truth; free composition of texts and pieces of visual art; the prerogative of the prose genres of literature and the reduction of popularity of lyrics; the solution of the problems on the basis of the general human values. Realism must not be confused with naturalism which appeared several decades later, because realism is the description of the typical situations of the real life and naturalism is the certain moment captured from this life and described with the extreme precision.
Realism is one of the trends of arts which are worth the student’s research. The young person is able to dwell on the principles of realism, study the most distinct characteristic features of the trend and prepare a quality term paper observing the issue in detail. It is important to present the history of realism, its development, the reasons of its popularity, the differences and similarities with other styles of arts, etc. The student is asked to provide the professor with the definite examples of realistic pieces of visual arts and literature. One is able to demonstrate the brightest examples of literature and arts from different countries and compare them.
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