Canada occupies almost the entire northern half of the North America continent and its numerous adjacent islands, including the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the north, Newfoundland in the east, and Vancouver in the west. On the east, the coast of the country is washed by the Atlantic, by the Pacific in the west, and by the Arctic Ocean in the north. Its territory extends between longitudes 52 and 141°W (from Cape Spear on the island of Newfoundland in the east to Mount Elias in the west), which is about 5100 km, and latitudes 41° and 84°N. (from Island Mild Island on the Erie lake in the south to Cape Columbia on Ellesmere Island in the north), which is nearly 4,600 km. The country’s area is 9974 thousand km2 with approximately 755,000 km2 (about 8%) in inland waters.
The capital of Canada – Ottawa city – is located in a picturesque area on the banks of the Ottawa River. The very name of the city comes from the Algonquin word for “exchange.” In 1857, Queen Victoria has chosen the city of Ottawa as the capital of Canada, due its position between the French and English parts of Canada. With the growth of the city there appeared venture for the production of office equipment, printing, food, perfume company.
Ottawa is a city of bridges. Four bridges support the traffic between Ottawa and its suburbs. About 10 bridges are thrown across the Rideau River, and other 6 connect two sides of the navigable channel. Ottawa is known for its parks and alleys. In spring, you can see there about one million tulips. The most fashionable quarters of the city are located in the Rokliff Park. Here are the embassies of foreign countries. There are a lot of beautiful churches in the capital, including English Christ Church Cathedral and the Roman Catholic Basilica of Notre-Dame.
Modern Canada emerged as a resettlement country. For the first time Europeans arrived on Canadian soil at the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth centuries. In the late fifteenth century, John Cabot, a sailor in the English service, discovered the island of Newfoundland. Since that time, there began to appear temporary settlements of Spanish, Portuguese, English, and French fishermen.
The early period of Canadian history is marked by the struggle between the two powers, France and Britain. In the colonization of Canada’s leading role was played by the France. In 1605-1608, French settlements founded such cities as Port Royal (now Annapolis) and Quebec. However, further the position of France was weakened. In 1713, the British finally captured the French colony of Acadia and turned it into a British colony, Nova Scotia. In 1763, as a result of the Seven Years’ War, Britain troops occupied New France, which was turned into a British possession under the name of Quebec.
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