Writing on Ecocriticism:
Studies of the literature and the environment in recent decades have led to creating in the U.S. and the EU a school of literary criticism, the Ecocriticism, dedicated to the representation of nature in literary works. Ecocriticism is a new field that breaks with the traditional of the separation between science and literature.
Cheryll Glotfelty defines this trend in his introduction to The Ecocriticism Reader, as “the study of the relationship between literature and the environment,” i.e., our ecosystem (set consisting of a community of organisms interacting with each other). Similarly, the idea of connecting the various disciplines of knowledge that aims to combine Ecocriticism, seeking harmony fields that allow us to understand these erroneous paradigms on which were based the myths of progress and development, is applied.
A broad interdisciplinary field thus opens before our eyes the relationship of literary studies and discourse of eco regarding to other related disciplines such as anthropology, the philosophy, the sociology, the psychology, and ethics.
The Ecocriticism approach formulates a theory in which everything is connected to everything.
There is, as it were, an interest in applying the use of ecological concepts to literary compositions, thus establishing a connection between the literary work, the author, and ecology. One of the most important features of Ecocriticism is committed to encouraging environmental awareness through literature. The Ecocriticism takes an approach based on Earth and nature to the study of literature.
A ecocrítical reader will ask questions such as:
- What view of nature raises this work?
- What role does the ambient environment play in this work?
- Are the values ??expressed in this report are consistent with ecological wisdom?
- How does it influence the metaphors we use for our environment, how we treat it?
- In addition to race, class, and gender perspectives used as critical, should the ambient environment and the view of nature become a new category for the analysis of literature?
In this way, we could study, for example, how the environmental crisis begins to be covered in the literature, and how it influence the literary language and the way we relate to the environment.
According to Cheryll Glotfelty, steps that Ecocriticism has continued (and continue) to take are very similar to those reported by Elaine Showalter in the evolution of feminism. Initially nature images are searched in the classical literature, identifying stereotypes (Eden, Arcadia, Paradise, etc.) and significant absences; in the second stage marginalized tradition of written texts is rescued from the wild; Finally, a theoretical phase, concerned with the literary constructions of human beings in relation to their natural environment continues, hence the interest in poetry is linked to movements such as ecology or ecofeminism.
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