Technological determinism is theoretical and methodological orientation in the philosophical and sociological concepts and research on the reduction of the understanding of social development to technological progress, which has a decisive impact on the being, thinking, and language of their adepts. It appeared in 1920 in connection with turbulent progress in the development of science and technology, increasing the efficiency of their use in the development of mass production.
Technological determinism (from the Greek. Techne – art, skill, from Lat. Determinare – define) in broader sense is a set of assumptions about machinery and technology as a crucial factor of the human society development.
According to the concept of, engineering and technology are developing entirely independently, subject only to its own logic, and thus changes to it are beyond the public understanding, they are dictated solely by the level of scientific and technological development and consistently progressive improvement of the parameters of modern engineering systems.
Society, by contrast, is entirely dependent on the level of engineering and technology, as the latter have the most impact on the industry, which only leads to a modification of social and cultural life.
Due to the fact that technological change is always ahead of the social (Ogborn’s cultural lag theory), society interests are subject to the constant updating of technical and economic spheres, and the technology is not only defines all aspects of social life, but also the direction of social development, the type of society, its structure, etc.
Keeping in mind that everything that is technically possible, finds its implementation, regardless of human ideals and values ??(the concept of technological imperative), the adherents of technological determinism define technical progress as some non-social dominant, defining the historical progress of mankind, and becoming, in such manner an absolute basis for the study of human history (D. Ribeiro).
The evergrowing influence of industrial and technological spheres of human activity on all other areas of our life and as a reflection of the process the popularity of the ideas of technological determinism in science, cause in society a desire to implement the measures of reasonable limitation of scientific and technological changes, to find their social limits and effective social controls (e.g., the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress), which largely reflected in all the economic and social policies pursued in the community.
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