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Health Care Delivery System Term Paper


Almost invariably, the advent of new-fangled technology coupled by globalization, anchored on the growth of information technology, has heralded a new chapter in global healthcare delivery systems. Indeed, health institutions as well as governments across the globe have made critical strides in healthcare delivery, a development that has improved the effectiveness as well as efficiency in healthcare at organizational level. In this regard, one of the most poignant information technology-centered aspects of healthcare delivery system that has revolutionized health organization is the concept of Tele-health (Burton-Jones & Gallivan, 2012). Ideally, Tele-Health as a concept, is undergirded by the liberal use of communications technology to efficiently deliver health related information and attendant services, ostensibly to support patient care, health education, as well as the attendant administrative activities. In a bid to critically analyze the concept Tele-Health as an invaluable novelty in healthcare delivery system, it would be imperative to review the attendant literature on Tele-Health adoption, as presented from three case studies from the Australasian conference on health education. Suffice to say, the ensuing report will cover the various literature gaps in the study, the plausibility of the research methods adopted by the researcher, as well as an in-depth critical review of the concept of Tele-Health as dissected by the research article.

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Critical Review
Almost interminably, Tele-health as a critical component of efficiency in healthcare delivery system is an invaluable tool, particularly with regard to promotion of long term health and attendant improvement in quality of life. In this regard, the article provided a compelling case for the adoption of the idea of Tele-Health in improving and managing health outcomes for individuals ailing from chronic health conditions. One of the most critical finding of the research study was to the effect that the various experiences in adopting the concept of telecare at an organizational level with regards to health improvement for chronically ill patients, is fundamentally detractable for the underlying issues with regards to adoption success of the concept of telehealth. Ideally, the research study as dissected by the article, covers considerable grounds regarding motley of value propositions in the adoption of telehealth concepts. Ideally, chronic ailments such as diabetes, COPD, asthma, and heart failure are a representative of the biggest burden of diseases within the global imperative. In this regard, archetypal burden of diseases is ideally measured in in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYS), which is typically a general reflection of individual human life lost from premature death from chronic diseases, as well as the number of years lived in sub-full health (Wootton,2012). Before delving into the main shortcomings of the article regarding the issue of telehealth management particularly from the prism of an archetypal organization, it is imperative to pose the question, does the concept of telehealth play any critical role in management of diseases?

Evidently, the research article under review, adopted a qualitative study, with a special emphasis on the role of information system as an invaluable tool in telehealth delivery systems, for patients suffering from chronic diseases at an organizational level. Ideally, the article made an exploratory study on the behavior of meso and macro levels of technology adoption in archetypal health organizations. Indeed, the research question for the research study as presented in the article, strived to answer the question on how organizational identity at meso level of an typical organization impact on the general adoption of innovation within the larger context of healthcare delivery systems (Cockroft&Hendy,2018). The sample for the research work in which the article was derived, spanned the United Kingdom’s funded evaluation program of the entire System Demonstrator Programme (WSD), that was executed between the years 2008 to 2011, and which was ideally considered to be the largest and most elaborate evaluation of the effectiveness or otherwise of telehealth concept in the country. The samples for this particular research were drawn from three English localities that included: Newham, Kent, and Cornwall, which formed the basis of three case studies dissected by the study. The data collection methodology adopted for this particular article was ideally conducted through interviews that spanned 41 interviewees within the healthcare profession.

One of the most enduring aspects of the research study as enunciated in the article is the ability of the researchers to incisively dissect the various spectrums of telehealth adoption across organizations under scope of the study. In this regard, the attendant conceptualization of research questions and the resultant hypothesis ideally underpinned the article’s breadth and span. Suffice to say, the scope of the various hypothesis congruent with the research questions served to broaden the scope of the entire research work as presented in the article (Bensinki&Armfiled,2012). In this regard, the research article adopted four critical hypotheses that invariably undergirded the entire study. Evidently, the conceptualization of the research hypothesis was in line with archetypal organization needs to adopt the concept of telehealth in their attendant healthcare delivery systems, across different spectrums of individual health needs. Ideally, the research hypothesis revolved around four thematic areas that largely included technological maturity in an organization in the context of telehealth adoption, the confidence of various organizations in adopting the concept in their attendant healthcare delivery systems, the various conflicts with an organization stemming from such adoption ranging from cost effectiveness, and the ability to provide quality care , as well as the technological and leadership literacy that would ideally impact the success or otherwise of telehealth adoption within a typical organization. The research article adopted several techniques and theories that ideally capture the essence of the problem statement as crafted by the researchers. Evidently, one of the most apt theories that undergirds the study is the leadership theory in organizational management. In this regard, the study pointed out averred that the introduction of telehealth concepts in archetypal health organization is highly dependent on the ability of such entities to embrace the novelty through the general efforts of top management. Moreover, the concept of organizational theory appears dominant throughout the article, and provides incredible insights on how organizations should handle and manage innovation.

The results of the ensuing research study as captured in the article provides a compelling reasons as to why organizations should be mindful of both external and internal factors when managing innovations such as the adoption of telehealth concepts in typical entities. Ideally, when organizations decide to embrace innovation there is bound to be internal conflict with the potential to hinder such implementation at organizational level, and proper leadership is essential to steer such implementation. Ideally, the most interesting part of the research as enunciated in the study is the ability of the researchers to intertwine the various theories pertaining to leadership and organizational management to principals of healthcare. Indeed, the study presents a microcosm of organizations across the globe on change management and how to handle resistance to change especially in innovation.

Article Name and Summary
Theory of Organization EHR Affordance Actualization
The article provides key insights on the multi-level nature of processes in the implementation of innovation in archetypal organizations. Evidently, the article provided an overview of affordability theory in regards to organizational innovation change through the prisms of information technology. Evidently, in the context of the research study, the term affordance was construed to mean the ability of a typical innovation to leverage operational performances for an archetypal organization across a whole spectrum of cost effectiveness, efficiency in healthcare delivery, as well as acceptability of such novelty by stakeholders, and eventual actualization (Lapotte & Rivard, 2005). In dissecting the affordance theory of innovation in archetypal organizations, the article found several gaps that included lack of theory, actualization process, and organizational context in regards to affordances, as well as the various bundles of interrelated affordances.

Relevance to the Article
The article is rather more apt to the research study under scrutiny, as it provides an overview of the various intricacies inherent in organizational change management with regards to innovation. Suffice to say, the article provides a compelling case on the various aspects of centralized medical and administrative structures that ideally drive organizational goals and attendant policies.

An Organization culture-based theory of clinical information system implementation in hospitals
This particular journal dissects the inherent difficulties faced by typical organizations in the general implementation of clinical information systems, as well as the various processes that may be undertaken to improve such adaptation. In this regard, the journal made various findings on the underlying issues that hinder system implementation form an organization point of view (Strong et al, 2014). Indeed, the research study in the journal made critical findings through the attendant theoretical propositions from the perspectives of the conceptualization of organization culture that include: differentiation, integration, as well as fragmentation. Suffice to say, the journal article tested the various relationship between organizational culture and computer information and communication system characteristics, system implementation practices as well as the general level of implementation difficulties in archetypal organizations. The journal article posited that system implementers in typical organizations play a critical role in making the various perspectives of innovation latent or salient. In this regard, the article made rather poignant findings to the effect that it is important for managers at the meso level in organizations to malign innovation and system implementations with the attendant clinical values espoused within such entities healthcare delivery systems (O’Connell, 2012). Moreover, the journal article provides a candid discussion on the importance of incorporating employees in system implementation at organization levels, ostensibly to avoid cases of resistance and general lethargy in embracing new systems especially in healthcare settings.

Relevance to the research Article
Invariably, this particular journal article is ideally relevant to the research paper under study, since it outlines the delicate process of incorporating new innovations especially in healthcare at organization level. In this regard, the article canvasses the various intricate details and hurdles in system implementation in healthcare delivery systems. The article provides a critical analysis of the relationship between organizational culture and the success or otherwise of implementing a workable healthcare delivery system. By drawing into the various organizational pitfalls that a typical organization would be poised to fall into in introducing innovation in healthcare delivery, the journal article draws apparent parallels with the research article under review.

A multilevel Model of resistance to Information Technology Resistance
This particular journal article outlines the various pitfalls of system implementation in archetypal enterprises, as well as the attendant remedies. In explaining the multi-level resistance to system implementation, the article assessed the attendant extant models of resistance to information technology. In this regard, the journal article employed the use of semantic analysis and subsequently identified five critical components that undergird such resistance that includes: threats, subjects, objects, behaviors, as well as initial Conditions.

Relevance to the Article
Evidently, this particular journal article is relevant to the research article under review in several ways. First , the article broaches the subject of new technologically driven innovation in healthcare delivery systems. Secondly, this particular article touches on the subject of the ability or otherwise of managers in healthcare entities to navigate the delicate process of system innovation (Lapotte et al, 2011). Finally, akin to the article under review, this particular journal article makes a critical analysis of the various avenues that may be used by stakeholders in archetypal healthcare setting to resist innovation, as well as the attendant remedies.

Literature Gap
Almost invariably, while the research article under review provides a candid background on the ability of telehealth concept in revolutionizing healthcare delivery systems especially with regards to management of chronic illnesses, little has been dissected on the role of clinicians and healthcare givers in such implementation processes. Indeed, the article delved on the role of managers on meso level of a typical organization. Indeed, the article invariably disregarded the macro and micro level reception of innovation especially within healthcare delivery systems. Suffice to say, the article makes a cursory observation of the attendant internal and external factors that would expedited or hinder innovation in healthcare delivery systems. While the article provided a few theories stemming from traditional information system literature, there was no efforts to explain the various associative theories, a fact that may be redeemed by further exploratory research (Schandlebauer,2017). Indeed, further research in the context of the research study would suffice, ostensibly to provide the necessary pointers on the nature of the various mid-range specific context theories.

Invariably, the research article under review provides limited scope of the attendant literature on the successful implementation of telehealth concepts in healthcare management. Indeed, the framing of the research study in the article under review has the net effect of limiting the literature scope of the study. In this regard, the research article narrowed on organizational identity at the meso level impact on adoption of innovation within healthcare delivery system. In this regard, the attendant research largely ignored the macro and micro levels of archetypal organizations when assessing the impact of innovation in healthcare particularly in the context of telehealth adoption.(Salisbury,2012) Moreover, the study provided less literature evidence of the various theories dissected particularly the mid-range theory.

Almost invariably, the research article under review provides a critical analysis on how archetypal enterprises should handle innovation processes at managerial level. One of the most critical aspects of the journal article is the ability or otherwise of managers within typical healthcare entities to navigate the delicate process of system implementation as part of innovation. Invariably, the article under review made substantial strides in making a plausible connection between the implementation of telehealth principles in healthcare management and organizational architecture. Indeed, the article identified various mismatches in policies with regards to adoption of new innovation in healthcare systems and the overall corporate strategies. Indeed, the attendant mismatch between policies and strategies with regards to adoption of new innovation was generally observed to stem from managers striving to paint a picture of competence without interrogating the various components of such technological novelty. Suffice to say, the aspect of followership was broached by the article as one of the most critical underpinnings of success or otherwise of technological innovation within healthcare settings. With regards to followership, the article critiqued the various intricacies of meso-level tension that would ideally suffice with regards to alignment of organizational policies with the strategic objectives that underpin innovations.

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Burton-Jones, A. and Gallivan, M. (2012). Toward a Deeper Understanding of System Usage in Organizations: a multilevel Perspective. MIS Quarterly Journals, 1(1), pp.1-35.
Cockroft, S. and Hendy, J. (2018). Telehealth Adoption: Three case studies at the organizational level. Australasian Conference on Information Systems, 1(1), pp.1-13.
Lapointe, L. and Rivard, S. (2005). Multilevel Model of Resistance to Information Technology Implementation,” MIS quarterly. MIS Quarterly, 29(3), pp.461-491.
Lapointe, L., Rivard, S. and Kappos, A. (2011). An Organization culture-based theory of clinical information system implementation in hospitals. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(1), pp.1-35.
O’Connell, P. (2012). Advantages and Challenges to using Telehealth Medicine. Global Journal of Medical Research: F Diseases, 15(4), pp.1-3.
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Schadelbauer, R. (2017). Anticipating Economic Returns of Rural Telehealth. Smart Rural Community, 6(4), pp.1-18.
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