“Orientalism set the real boundaries between human beings…”
David Henry Hwang
David Henry Hwang wrote “a play about Western imperialism and Eastern deception”. Hwang takes a true story of spying and astonishing sexual misidentification and transforms it into a complex dealing of cultural, social, racial, political, and sexual issues that has surprised his audience with its extraordinary beauty.
It’s necessary to admit Hwang’s original way of writing and portraying characters in his works. Such cultural questions as race and gender relations, socio-economic inequality of society are asked in every Hwang’s work. His first play, “FOB” – an acronym for “fresh off the boat” – marked the beginning of his grow as a playwright.
Hwang was growing up in California as a Chinese American. It made him politically mindful; his deep attention to his Chinese identity, Chinese roots, and mainstream American culture is clear in the central conflicts of lots of his works. The issues that occur between East and West are skillfully illustrated in his works too. Continue reading →
International relations are very complicated, and historically they were of a paramount concern of many specialists, which attempted to explain the logic of international relations from a scientific point of view. As a result, a number of theories aiming at the explanation of the foreign affairs have appeared in political science that was quite natural because there were a lot of different views and opinions which often were contradicting to each other.
However, it does not necessarily mean that the arguments and theoretical arguments concerning the essence and fundamental principles of international relations. At the same time, it should be pointed out that a significant impact on the development of numerous political theories related to international relations produced and keeps producing the actual situation in the national, regional and world politics. In other words, the current situation in politics, beginning from the federal level and till the world scale, defines or, to put it more precisely, influences the theoretical issues which are developed in a particular historical period. Continue reading →
Marriage is a specific form of relationship that has developed in human society as a way to make interactions between genders more orderly and subordinate the instinct of proliferation to the norms of society. It is defined by Catholic Encyclopaedia as “a legitimate union between husband and wife” (Ryan, 2003). The concept of legitimacy is derived from some authority, be it religious or civil that sanctions the union between two people. This sanctioning serves to create a type of bond between two people that leads to the existence of certain responsibilities and obligations of both parties, namely of husband and wife. These responsibilities are also an essential part of marriage and define it as a specific type of union.
These obligations refer in the first place to sexual intercourse. In this sense, they are culturally defined to a great extent. Thus, some cultures strictly require either partners, or at least the woman, to have had no prior sexual experience before getting married, whereas in others, like in modern American culture, this experience has almost become a prerequisite. During the marriage itself, most cultures and sometimes even legal contracts stipulate that both partners should have no sexual intercourse with parties other than their spouse, although “among some savage tribes the husband permits his guests to have intercourse with his wife, or loans her for hire” (Ryan, 2003). In most societies, however, such sexual intercourse with an individual other than one’s spouse is strongly discouraged and “has also often been criminalized, especially in the case of a person who is a representative of the government” (Wikipedia, 2006). Continue reading →
The three dominant theories used in sociology are conflict theory, functionalism and symbolic interactionism. Although they have been complemented with more recent inventions such as feminism, post-modernism and post-structuralism, and social construction theory, the three remain a strong traditional framework within which a sociologist can craft hypotheses and evaluate facts.
These theories can explain a host of phenomena, including capitalism and class conflict and culture, suggesting differing accounts of them.
Functionalism is a macrosociological level theory that strives to explain various phenomena from the point of view of larger social structures. Concentrating on social order, it regards society as “a system of interrelated, interdependent parts, which are social institutions or structures, e.g. a part may be family, education, economic, religion, etc.” (van der Veen, 2003). Thus, society is perceived as objective reality measurable with the help of scientific methods, treated in the positivist vein. An individual is connected to the overall society through its structure. All the elements of structure are assumed to cooperate in a coherent manner for the improvement of the whole society. This theory is also called structural functionalism because it “emphasizes the functions within the structure of the main parts of society and the contributions of each for the overall society’s survival and growth” (Ferrante, 1998). Scholars have shown functions to be either manifest or latent, but they are inherent in every type of structure. Continue reading →
The main historical reasons of the American revolution can be explained by the growing economical potential of North American colonies and short eyed foreign policy of Great Britain towards its possessions in the New world.
Colonies of North America had to pay unbearable taxes to the crown, they were deprived the opportunity to develop local industry and manufacturing, in fact North American colonies had to be raw material and agricultural donors of Great Britain. Despite so-called “Tea tax”, “Hat tax”, stamp duty, American colonies had to pay taxes to support British Army in colonies. Such practices prevented local economies from gradual development, but due to the high economic and military potential of colonies they could not stop development and would result in revolution one time.
Revolution resulted in independence of American colonies; it gained basic liberties and freedoms for new American nation. But nevertheless, constitution and declaration of independence didn’t solve the issue of slavery, so nothing really changed for thousands of American slaves: “The situation of black slaves as a result of American revolution was more complex. Thousands of black fought with the British. Five thousand were with the revolutionaries, most of them from North, but their situation didn’t change much after revolution” (p. 88) Continue reading →
The students of sixth grade can read and analyze information, make suggestions, and try thinking critically. Therefore, to develop reading skills and to make the reading process more efficient for the students of sixth grade, the good decision is to use so-called prediction strategy. Prediction reading strategy is an approach to reading that is based on the previous knowledge, skills, and experience of learners. Prediction is very popular and effective approach, thus there exists a certain amount of diverse strategies to be used within the process of reading.
In the current work, we will focus on one of the prediction reading strategies, the Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA). This strategy is one of the most distributed ones, especially for teaching students of sixth grade. Continue reading →
” I chose not to choose life: I chose something else. And the reasons? There are no reasons. Who need reasons when you’ve got heroin?” – Welsh, Trainspotting
The main character of the novel is a heroin-addicted Mark Renton. Mark is caught for theft together with his friend Spud. Mark Renton is freed with the condition that he undergoes a mandatory rehab.
His friend Spud is sentenced to six-month imprisonment for the same crime. Renton, the main character of Irvine Welsh’s novel Trainspotting is a representative of an ordinary working man who spends his time in the attempt to escape from reality. He lives in the suburbs of Edinburgh, which is full of “dispossessed white trash”(Welsh 190). He is described as a usual heroine junkie who wastes his life on drugs and primitive pleasures. The novel is full of details and descriptions that give the reader a perfect idea about the world the main character lives in. When talking about the lady, who comes to Edinburgh hoping to get a “hoose in Princes Street lookin oantay the castle” the author shows the way the characters see the city. They laugh at the lady and “instead of a view of the castle, she’s [given] a view of the gasworks. That’s how it fuckin works in real life, if ye urnae a rich cunt wi a big fuckin hoose n plenty poppy” (Welsh 115-116). Reading the author’s descriptions, we get a better idea about the air Mark breathes in. We can see the depth of his falling and things he is ready to do to get his doze. In one of the scenes of the novel, Renton has to use opium because he can not get heroin. Suppositories fall to the toilet, and the main character plunges his arm to get them back without any hesitation. The main character of the novel sees nothing wrong in beating strangers in the street and sees nothing immoral in random homosexual relations of even sleeping with his brother’s pregnant girlfriend. Continue reading →
The present term paper aims at analyzing global issues and challenges that now exist. Awareness is a necessary prerequisite to understanding. In today’s world, everyone must have a degree of literacy regarding the global problems, issues, concerns, and trends that increasingly impact our lives. Global literacy entails reasonable familiarity with global issues that dominate the news. It means every person should know some facts about global issues to be able to analyze others.
The essay characterizes the contemporary international political system for the economy, technology, social classes, cultures, environment problems, theoretical perspectives such as idealism, realism, liberalism and the rich and poor gap.
There can be many secrets to success in the beauty industry, an area that can be extremely challenging and unpredictable. The executives I interviewed all gave different recipes for success, insisting that beauty industry can challenge one to apply the maximum effort but also bring out the full potential of an individual.
Jane McCoy, the marketing manager at L’Oreale, Brussels, says that the main secret is to move quickly along with consumer tastes. All over the world, consumers can change their tastes quickly as new trends emerge and women and men turn to new ways to improve their appearance. The company, be it large or small, should adopt a proactive approach, seeking out innovations and implementing it as soon as the tide changes. The constant forward movement should be among the leading priorities. Continue reading →
The situation described here includes the conversation between the marketing manager in the author’s organisation and the project manager. As the author was a witness to the talk, observation led to the conclusion that the conversation could have greatly benefited from an increased understanding from both parties. This interpersonal situation is deemed to be highly detrimental to work progress and therefore needs improvement. The interaction is considered from the behavioural, humanistic, and psychoanalytic viewpoint to consider possible solutions and receive insights into personality dynamics.
1. Situation Description
Frank Brown, Marketing Manager, has long been confident that the course taken by the project is completely wrong and is doomed to fail. He had long thought that the ideas of our boss were ineffective and unrealistic, but felt reluctant to share this with him. In this conversation, however, he simply exploded, telling the project manager, Brian Graham, what he thought of his ideas.
Frank began by reporting about his findings during the preparation of the marketing plan. As he was sharing his insights, Brian once again expressed his dissatisfaction over delays in Frank’s work. He state: “Once again, you are not able to meet the deadline for your marketing plan. I just remind you that our company places special emphasis on meeting deadlines, as I have already told you more than once”. Continue reading →