Biofuels are the fuels based on organic materials, which are used for the production of energy. The most well-known biofuels are wood, alcohol and wastes. In comparison with the most popular types of fuels (oil, gas, coal, etc) which are exhaustible, biofuel is the renewable type of energy, because it is produced during the term of no more than ten years. Biofuels contain about 80% of the products which are the result of the activity of the live organisms – animals and plants. The most serious advantage of biofuel is that it consists of the organic materials and it is not dangerous for the environment. The main similarity between biofuel and oil or coal is that biomass is the form of the accumulation of the solar energy – the energy of the Sun is caught through the process of photosynthesis during the growth of plants.
Agriculture plays the important role in the production of biofuel; for example, in the USA such plants as corn and soybean are raised for this purpose; in Europe – flax and rapeseed; in Brazil – sugarcane; in South-East Asia – palm oil. There are many materials which can play the role of biofuel – the results of agriculture and farming, industry and other forms of activity. Domestic wastes, fertilizers, straw, wood, the products of animals’ activity, food remnants, etc are transformed by microorganisms into biomass rich in biogas, used for the production of energy. The world leaders of the production of biofuel are: Brazil, the USA and the EU. In order to reduce dependence on oil Brazil produces ethanol from the cheap sugarcane; the UE also wants to reduce dependence on oil and to improve the quality of the natural environment raising rapeseed.
Biofuel is the fuel gained from the activity of animals and plants having the organic origin. This topic is important for the research, because the energy crisis is close and the humanity has to look for the alternative renewable sources of fuel. The student is expected to learn about the types, manner and technology of production of biofuels, their importance for the production of energy, etc. Moreover, one can mention the most popular materials used for the creation of biomass and to analyze the popularity of biofuel in the world and mention the leading countries producers of this kind of fuel.
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