Fascism is the type of the political regime of the country which is based on the radical authoritarian imperialistic ideology. The brightest traits of fascism are the strong cult of personality, militarism, imperialism and the idea of the constant war. Fascism is the name of the movement which occurred in Italy in 1922 – 1944 under the effect of Benito Mussolini. The issue on fascism is very complicated for the research, because it is impossible to define this political trend to any definite side: right or left. On the one hand, fascism is associated with the ultra right movements, but on the other hand there are many elements and borrowings from the left socialistic ideas. The popularity of fascism and other similar movements (nationalistic-socialism in Germany, Falange in Spain, etc) and dictatorships are quite natural, because the world faced a serious economic crisis after World War 1 and the people of many European countries believed that only a strong hand of a leader could save them from the economic collapse. Most often their ideas were right, because totalitarian movements managed to restore the countries after the crisis.
Fascism is based on the massive popular totalitarian political party (the power becomes monopolized), the controlled by the party trade unions and the indisputable authority of the leader (chancellor, duce, etc) and massive ideological and physical terror. The brightest characteristics of fascism are the absence of democracy, militarization of the society, anti-liberal activity, collectivism, introduction of terror and violence for the solution of the majority of problems, including the destruction of the political opponents.
Fascism is one of the radical political branches and it is worth attention and detailed analysis. The student is asked to complete the objective research of fascism, its ideology, the elements which characterize fascism and differ it from other political movements. The student is supposed to observe the history and the origin of fascism and analyze the factors which provided its leader with the massive support in the society. One must not observe fascism from the single negative side and it obliged to analyze it objectively trying to find any positive and negative sides in order to define the most appropriate political movement which can be for the people’s good.
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