Idealism is the opposite of materialism philosophic view, which is based on the belief that the core of the objects and phenomena of the reality lies not in the material but in the in the ideal nature: intelligence, idea, feelings, etc. Speaking about the philosophic attitude of intelligence to existence, idealism is supposed to be the primary force and materialism – the secondary one.
There are two forms of idealism: objective and subjective. Objective idealism puts into the basis of everything existing in the world the absolute idea.
The most well-organized system of objective idealism was suggested in the ancient times by Plato. The top of the development of objective idealism was observed in the ideas of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Subjective idealism is the belief that the only real existing things are the human feelings and everything existing around are the complex and product of the human feelings.
Subjective idealism was seriously researched and explained in Kant’s scepticism and agnosticism. Subjective idealism is quite a dangerous branch, because if one really believes in it, he accepts only the existence of his own personality. The modern most popular branch of subjective idealism is irrationalism, which is based on the criticizing of logical thinking and total relying on the human intuition. Idealism as one of the numerous philosophic ideas has long history and several generations of philosophers (from Ancient Greek ones to the representatives of 18th – 20th centuries) who modified and developed the concept of idealism made it an integral part of the modern philosophic theory.
Idealism is an important philosophic concept which is characterized with its unique vision of metaphysics and order of life. The student who is asked to research this philosophic concept is supposed to spend much time learning about the origin of idealism, the philosophers who devoted their lives to the development of this idea, the principles of idealism, etc. It is important to be aware about the structure and elements and the key ideas of idealism in order to understand the concept form all sides. One should observe the contribution and modification of idealism by every famous philosopher and evaluate their contribution objectively. It is also possible to compare idealism to other philosophic ideas in order to define possible strong and weak sides.
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