Distributed database is the complex of the logically connected databases, which are distributed in the computer network. A distributed database consists of the set of nodes which are connected with the communication network, where every node is the separate system of database management and the nodes are interconnected in the network in such a way that the user is able to get access towards the information in the network as if the data is located in his own network.
Every node is a separate database system. Any user can fulfill operations on data in his local node in the same way, even if the node was not a part of the distributed system. A distributed database can be observed as the partnership between the separate local databases and nodes.
The major principles of distributed databases are: local independence (all the operations in the database are controlled by this very node); the equality of the nodes (all the nodes in the network are equal and there is no any primary node); constant functioning; effectiveness of work regardless of the location; independence from fragmentation; independence from replication; distributed transaction management; independence from the operating system; independence from the network (the opportunity of maintenance of numerous nodes which differ according to their equipment and operating systems and the type of the communication networks). Of course, there are a few negative sides of distributed databases and the most important among them are: lack of security (anyone can get access towards the database and it requires additional attention of the expert); complexity and the need of the extra appliances for the maintenance of the quality of the service.
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