A landfill is a territory used for the big storage of domestic and industrial wastes. It is obvious that the industrial development of the human civilization and the rapid growth of the human settlements cause the problem of littering and production of the enormous amount of wastes of all kinds. In order to clean cities and villages form litter and all kinds of wastes, landfills were created. The local government chooses the neutral territory quite far from the settlements and accumulates wastes there. Nowadays, landfills cover vast territories in the world and cause many problems to the natural environment and the human and animal health. When various kinds of wastes are accumulated on the single territory, they can cause harm to the surrounding areas, pollute and contaminate underground water, the rivers and lakes nearby, the soil and air. Moreover, wastes can deprive animals and birds form their homes, making the nearby territories unsafe for the normal life.
The wildlife is seriously endangered in such areas, because landfill is a home of such animals as rats and homeless dogs which can transmit various diseases dangerous for other animals. Then, the areas are full of dangerous insects which cause diseases to people and animals. Landfills are supposed to be among the extensive methods of waste management, because nothing is done to reduce pollution and waste’s impact on the environment. The most reasonable alternative to landfills is recycling. It is wise to reuse certain products several times (bottles, plastic, carton), because it economizes natural resources. When it is impossible to reuse, it is easy to recycle products, made of metal, plastic, paper, etc, because it not only saves resources and energy, but reduces the territories of the landfills harmful for the environment.
Landfills are the areas which are used for the accumulation of wastes and this way of waste management is supposed to the worst one, because millions of tons of materials are thrown away in spite of being recycles and used once more. The student has the task to research the problem from all sides in order to analyze the structure, types and manner of work of landfills, their strong and weak sides and the future perspectives of the waste management. One should compare landfills with other ways of waste management and draw the objective conclusion.
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